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SA5 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Franklin K. Lane, Secretary 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 
Stephen T. Mather, Director 



REPORT 



ON 



THE PROPOSED 
SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK 

INDIANA 



BY 



STEPHEN T. MATHER 




RECEwen 

MAR 8 1995 

iX)CUIIEIIT8 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTINa OFFICE 

1917 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Franklin K. Lane, Secretary 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Stephen T. Mather, Director 



REPORT 



ON 



THE PROPOSED 
SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK 

INDIANA 



BY 



STEPHEN T. MATHER 




washington 
government printing office 

1917 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Eeport on the proposed Sand Dunes National Park, of Indiana 5 

Appendix A, Hearing on the Sand Dunes National Park project, held at Chi- 
cago, 111., October 30, 191G (index to speakers on pp. 15,16) 15 

Morning session 15' 

Afternoon session 50 

Appendix B, Miscellaneous letters, resolutions, and other documents 98 

The Dunes of Northern Indiana, by Jens Jensen 98 

Letter of Mr. Wm. A. Peterson 100 

Letter of Mrs. Jeannette C. Mix 101 

Letter of Mr. H. C. Benke ., 101 

Letter of Mr. Alfred Lewy 102 

Letter of Mr. Sidney A. Teller 102 

Letter of Mr. R. H. Brown 103 

Excerpt from letter of Mr. J. G. Morgan 103 

Letter of Mrs. Nellie B. Bowers 104 

Resolution of the Indiana Conference of Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution 104 

y^ Resolution of the Chicago Woman's Club 105 

Letter of the Chicago "Woman's Aid 106 

Letter of the Chicago South Side Club 106 

Resolution of the Central Eleanor Club, Chicago 107 

Letter of the Lombard Woman's Club 107 

Letter of Nature Study Class, Lombard Woman's Club 108 

Letter of Roseland Woman's Club 308 

Letter of the Duo Decimo Club, of Fort Wayne 108 

Letter of the Short Hills Garden Club 108 

Telegram of Mrs. J. W. Cunningham, President of the Rumson Garden 

Club, New Jersey 109 

Resolution of the Lake County Trades and Labor Council 109 

Resolution of the Gary Departmental Club 109 

Articles of association of the National Dunes Park Association 110 

An act to establish a national park service, and for other purposes Ill 

An act for the preservation of American antiquities 112 

MAPS. 

Map of Northern Indiana 7 

Maj) of proposed Dunes National Park 7 

3 



I 



REPORT ON THE PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL 

PARK, OF INDIANA. 



By vStephen T. Mather. 

Department of the Interior, 

Washington, December 20, 1916. 

My Dear Mr. Secretary: I have the honor to submit herewith 
the results of my study of the Sand Dunes National Park project. 

Senate resolution adopted September 7, 1916, imposed upon the 
Department of the Interior the duty of investigating and reporting 
to Congress 'Hhe advisability of the securing, by purchase or other- 
wise, all that portion of the counties of Lake, Laporte, and Porter, 
in the State of Indiana, bordering upon Lake Michigan, and com- 
monly known as the 'Sand dunes,' with a view that such lands be 
created a national park." The department was also charged by this 
resolution with ascertaining the cost of acquiring the sand dunes for 
national park purposes, and the probable cost of maintaining the area 
as a national park. 

It was your desire that I personally undertake the investigation 
ordered by this Senate resolution and report my findings and obser- 
vations to you for consideration. 

As, no funds were made available by the Senate resolution to cover 
the expenses of conducting a thorough investigation and assembling 
data for presentation to Congress, the funds of the department were 
necessarily drawn upon to meet a considerable portion of these 
expenses. The cost of reporting a hearing which I found it advisable 
to hold in Chicago was defrayed by various organizations and indi- 
vichials interested in the safeguarding of the dune areas in their 
natural state. 

My study of this national park project was made in Chicago, at 
Michigan City, Ind., and in the dune areas themselves, during the 
week commencing October 30. While I was a resident of Chicago on 
several occasions I had made pleasure trips to the sand dunes of 
[n(Uana, and was quite familiar with their characteristics, but I 
Icomed it expedient to make another trip in order that I might note 
iny important changes in the status of the dunes since my last visit 
^o them, and also in order that I might survey them in the light of my 
experience in the active administration of the great areas now form- 
ng our national park system. 

5 



6 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

On October 30 I coiiducted a hearing in Judge Kohlsaat's court- 
room, No. 653 P'ederal Building, Chicago, for the purpose of giving 
proponents and opponents of the project under investigation an oppor- 
tunity to appear and present their arguments in favor of the preserva- 
tion of the sand dunes as a national park, or in opposition to this idea, 
a^ the case might be. This hearing was attended by approximately 
400 persons. Numerous addresses advocating the creation of a sand 
dunes national park were delivered, but no party appeared to present 
reasons why the dune areas should not be thus preserved. 

Among the speakers who urged that the sand dunes be preserved 
as a national reservation were many men and women prominent in 
educational, art, literary, scientific, and business circles of several 
States. The hearing, therefore, did not proceed as a gathering of 
local citizens expressing convictions based on purely local considera- 
tions, but gave me an opportunity to gain the benefit of the thought 
and serious study of broadgauge minds which were not influenced by 
selfish motives. The complete transcript of the proceedings of the 
hearing will be found attached hereto as Appendix A. 

Subsequent to my investigation of this project on the ground, there 
have been several resolutions, letters, and miscellaneous documents 
indorsing the movement filed for the consideration of the department! 
and Congress. These have been assembled and classified and have 
been made a part of this report by inclusion in Appendix B. 

Good maps indicating the location of the sand dunes with reference 
to several important Indiana cities, and the subdivisions of the dune 
areas in Porter County, Ind., and the owners of these tracts are made 
a part hereof. 

The Senate resoluticju directing that this project be investigatec 
required a report on ^'all that portion of the counties of Lake, La 
porte, and Porter, in the State of Indiana, bordering upon Lak 
Michigan, commonly known as the 'Sand Dunes' ". 

This instruction indicates that the Senate seeks advice on the whol 
dune region, because Lake County adjoins the State of Illinois, an 
the north boundary of Laporte County is the Indiana-Michigan line 

A glance at the map of northern Indiana (p. 7) discloses the far 
that the industrial city of Gary is situated in the northeast part ( j| 
Lake County, and that its suburbs and closely connected towns e: 
tend almost to the east boundary of the county. It will also be see 
that Michigan City, another industrial center of importance, is locate 
immediately adjacent to the west boundary of Laporte County, ar 
its industries and population have overflowed into Porter County 
a small extent. It may be said, therefore, that the cities of Ga 
and Michigan City have divided the dune area in partes tres. T\ 
sections, the one, really many sections in itself, lying between 1 
Indiana-Illinois boundary and the little town of Millers just east 
Gary, and the section lying between Michigan City and the Indiar 



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PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 



Michigan boundary, are relatively 
small. In the former section, the 
advance of ^business enterprise 
and the natural growth of indus- 
trial population on the west and 
east are rapidly settling this ter- 
ritory, and, as this expansion 
continues, the dunes and their 
recreational opportunities are dis- 
appearing. In the latter section, 
industrial expansion and the in- 
crease of summer homes on the 
lake shore have marked its des- 
tiny unmistakably. The influ- 
ence of urban values is naturally 
ver}' evident in these sections. 
They are subdivided into a great 
many small tracts, and a multi- 
tude of owners hold titles to them. 

Efforts to ascertain the value of 
these lands, and the price at which 
they could be purchased for park 
purposes, were unavailing. The 
expenditure of much time and 
considerable money would proba- 
bly have resulted in our gaining 
definite information on these 
points, but I did not deem it ad- 
visable to devote my time to this 
or incur the expense involved. 

For the following reasons, 
therefore, I have concluded that 
the dune areas in Lake County 
west of Millers and in Laporte 
County are not worthy of consid- 
eration with a view to their 
preservation by the Federal 
Government : 

1. They are too small. 

2. They are constructively iso- 
lated from the main sand dunes 
of Porter County and could 
not be adapted to economical 
and efficient administration as 
national park areas. 



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8 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

3. They do not possess sufficiently distinctive scenery or other 
physical features to entitle them to consideration as possible sections 
of a national park. 

4. They are very close to industrial centers, and are in the paths 
of industrial expansion. 

5. They are owned by numerous individuals and corporations who 
regard them as very valuable, and who are holding their particular 
tracts for future business use or other disposition as seems best in the 
light of business growth in these regions. 

After reaching these conclusions with respect to these dune sec- 
tions, I did not deem it wise to study them with regard to their ad- 
ministration or development as sections of a national park. The 
close proximity of urban communities would, in all likelihood, make 
the cost of administration great. 

- With this disposition of the sand dunes of most of Lake County 
and Laporte County, the main sand dune section in the extreme 
northeast corner of Lake County and in Porter County, Ind., remains 
to be discussed. 

This section is approximately 25 miles in length and 1 mile in 
width, and extends from the small town of Millers in Lake County to 
Michigan City. On the north there is the Lake Michigan shore hne 
and on the south the area is bounded by cultivated farm lands, which 
are traversed by several important railroad lines. Chesterton and 
Porter, the largest cities in northern Porter County, are not far dis- 
tant from this dune region. 

These sand dunes are classified as among the finest in the world 
by scientists who are qualified to speak on deposits of sand of this 
character. I have never seen sand dunes that equal them in any 
degree. I have no doubt, however, that there are other dunes in the 
United States which do equal them. But I am quite sure that if 
they do exist they are not as accessible as these Indiana dunes are. 
These are readily accessible to approximately 5,000,000 people, and, 
furthermore, they are ideally located with respect to the center of 
population, which, when last determined, was in the State of Lidiana. 

These sand dunes, contrary to the generally accepted notion, are 
not mere accumulations of clean white sand from Lake Michigan with 
which the wind plays at will. They are deposits which constitute 
the action of the elements for ages past. The sand in hundreds of 
acres of this region has remained untouched for decades and perhaps 
centuries. Trees, large and small, have grown on the sand piles, and 
to-day form one of the scenic features of the dune country. Various 
vines, shrubs, reeds, grasses, and sedges thrive in these areas which 
are not in the process of diminution or augmentation, and wild flow- 
ers are found in great abundance. 

These dunes are beautiful at all times of the year. 



PEOPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAKK. 9 

The beauty of the trees and other plant life in their autumn garb, 
as I saw them recently, was beyond description. 

Several species of wild animals abound in the woods, but they are 
not numerous and are rarely seen. There is not sufficient food in 
a region so limited in extent to sustain a large number of wild animals. 

Birds are numerous at certain periods of the year, and a few birds 
native to the region are to be seen at all times. The dunes appear, 
therefore, to be in the path of migratory birds which move north 
or south with the changing seasons. 

Of surpassing interest to the visitor are the dunes which are in the 
building or are being destroyed by the winds. In these one may 
see the omnipresent battle of the sand and winds and plant life. 
Here the sand, swept by the winds, attacks trees and shrubs and 
slowlv covers them and smothers them, while the winds lash them 
mercilessly; there a dune a century old has gotten in the path of the 
gale, and is beaten and battered and finally destroyed, its sand carried 
away to furnish material for further fantastic work. Oftentimes, 
when a dune is destroyed great dead trees are wholly uncovered, 
indicating that the winds once sealed their doom. 

These are only a few of the many interesting and curious features 
of the dune country. They attract the scientist, the teacher, and 
the student, as well as the individual who merely seeks rest and 
recreation and communion with nature. Thev constitute a Paradise 
for the artist and writer. 

It is important that the Lake Michigan shore be mentioned. 

Here is a stretch of unoccupied beach 25 miles in length, a broad, 
clean, safe beach, which in the summer months would furnish splendid 
bathing facilities for thousands of people at the same instant. Fish- 
ing in Lake Michigan directly north of the dunes is said to be excep- 
tionally good. There are hundreds of good camp sites on the beach 
and back in the dunes. 

So much for the physical characteristics of these sand dunes 
and their plant and animal life. I have merely sketched an outline 
of these features of this country. Reference is here made, therefore, 
to the eloquent descriptions of these dunes and what they offer the 
visitor to the transcript of the Chicago hearing in Appendix A. 

Assuming, without further description of actual conditions in this 
dune country, that the sand dunes of Indiana are equal to those in 
any other section of the country; that they are the most accessible 
dunes; that they possess extremely interesting flora and fauna; 
that they offer unparalleled opportunities to observe the action of 
the wind and its influence on the sand and plant life; that the Lake 
Michigan beach is beautiful and offers bathmg facilities for a multi- 
tude; that the recreational uses of the region are myriad, should they, 
or a large section of them, be preserved for present and future gen- 
erations? If they should be preserved, are they worthy of inclusion 



10 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

in a national park? And if they are worthy of consideration as a 
possible national park, would it be practicable to establish them as 
such a park for the benefit and enjoyment of the people? 

Answering these questions in their order, in my judgment, a large 
section of this dune region should be preserved for all time. Its 
preservation would in no way interfere with the development of 
industrial enterprises in Indiana and it is needed for recreational 
purposes now and in the future. Science and education virtually 
demand that it be safeguarded forever or at least the major portion 
of it preserved. 

A large portion of this dune region is worthy of consideration 
as a national park project. A national park should possess scenic 
features of supreme magnificence or scientific or historical features 
of transcendant importance. By and large, they should be dis- 
tinctive areas of extraordinary inherent worth and the}^ should be 
accessible. The wonderful geysers, terraces, paint pots, and other 
extraordinary results of subterranean heat m action on water and the 
materials of the earth's crust rendered the Yellowstone region 
worthy of preservation in a national park. The incomparable 
glaciated gorge with its perpendicular walls, waterfalls hundreds of 
feet in height, domes and spires, entitled the Yosemite region to 
inclusion in a national park. Crater Lake Park was created to 
preserve forever in its natural state one of the most extraordinary 
lakes in the world, a lake in the extinct crater of a volcano 6 miles in 
diameter, with its surface 1,000 feet below the rim of the crater. 
Sequoia National Park contains within its boundaries the largest 
and oldest trees on the earth. It was to preserve these trees that 
a national park was established. Mount Rainier National Park 
includes within its boundaries the second highest mountain in the 
United States and the most remarkable one. In its sides glaciers, 
hundreds of feet in thickness, are gouging to-day great wide valleys 
of the future. Glacier and Rocky Mountain National Parks were 
established to preserve forever the extraordinary Alpine scenery 
of two widely separated sections of the Rocky Mountains. The 
scenery of each, however, is in every respect different in character. 
The best preserved and most interesting prehistoric cliff dwellings 
in the United States are those in Mesa Yerde National Park, and it 
was to insure their protection that this park was created. 

The Grand Canyon is another park project pending at the present 
time. It should be favorably considered by Congress because it is 
the most stupendous and gorgeous chasm in the earth's surface — a 
canyon that is beautiful, dazzlingly gorgeous, awful, even terrible, 
according to the conditions under which it is seen. 

The sand dunes are admittedly wonderful, and they are inherently 
distinctive because they best illustrate the action of the wind on the 
sand accumulated from a great body of water. No national park or 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 11 

other Federal reservation offers this phenomenon for the pleasure 
and edification of the people, and no national park is as accessible. 
Furthermore, the dunes offer to the visitor extraordinary scenery, a 
large variety of plant life, magnificent bathing beaches, and splendid 
opportunities to camp and live in the wild country close to nature. 

If the dunes of this region were mediocre and of little scenic or 
scientific interest, they would have no national character and could 
not be regarded as more than a vState or municipal park possibility. 
My judgment is clear, however, that their characteristics entitle the 
major portion of their area to consideration as a national park 
project. 

Is it practicable to create a national park to include this dune 
area? This is the question of supreme importance, but it would 
seem that it is a question of legislative policy which Congress alone 
can determine. The dunes are not public lands. Their owners do 
not offer to donate them to the Federal Government, and no indi- 
vidual or organization has undertaken to purchase them and convey 
them to the Government for park purposes. All parks that have 
heretofore been established have been carved out of the public 
domain. Land has never been purchased for reservation as a national 
park, and in only a very few instances have private holdings in a 
national park been purchased for park purposes. The only instance 
of importance when such action was taken was the appropriation of 
•150,000 in the last sundry civil act for the purchase of lands on which 
the finest of the giant Sequoia trees are standing in Sequoia National 
Park. This appropriation was insufficient, and the National Geo- 
graphic Society game to the rescue of these trees and made available 
the additional $20,000 necessary to complete their purchase and 
preservation. 

Donations of tracts of the dune area could be accepted by the 
Secretary of the Interior under the act of June 8, 1906 (see p. 112, 
Appendix B), and subsequently they might be declared by the Presi- 
dent to constitute a national monument under the management and 
supervision of the National Park Service. It was under this act that 
Muir Woods National Monument in California and Sieur de Monts 
National Monument on the coast of Maine were established after 
they had been conveyed to th('> Federal Government by public- 
spirited individuals. Or the proffered lands might be accepted and 
included in a national j)ai-k by act of Congress. In the absence of 
donations, however, the only method of acquiring any of the dune 
country for park purposes is to purchase outright sufUcient land to 
establish a park of distinction and dignity. A sand dunes national 
park possessing these qualifications should contain from 9,000 to 
13,000 acres. A national monument might be very small, perhaps 
only a few hundred acres in area, but a park should include within 
its boundaries from 1") to 20 square miles, and in view of the fact 



12 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

that the dune area is only about 1 mile wide it should extend from 
15 to 20 miles along the shore of Lake Michigan. A park of this 
size could be purchased at this time in Porter County without encoun- 
tering the influence of urban values which are apparent in the regions 
adjacent to Millers and Michigan City. 

One way to determine the proper boundaries of a park of reasonable 
size would be to locate a line midway between these two cities and 
survey 7 to 10 miles in either direction from this line. Another 
method would be to locate a line just beyond the zone of indisputable 
urban values on the west or east, and establish the boundaries of the 
park by a survey 15 to 20 miles east or west from this line, as the case 
may be. The application of either of these methods would result in 
the outline of a park which would have no isolated tracts. All tracts 
would be contiguous and the whole area would form a park of digni- 
fied proportions. 

The establishment of such a park, however, would involve the 
expenditure of a large sum of money. In the course of my investi- 
gation it was practically impossible to obtain any definite and abso- 
lutely reliable quotations on any of this dune land. No owner was 
inclined to put a special lower price on his land for sale for park pur- 
poses. On the other hand, I am not aware of any case where a high 
price was quoted on property because of an impression that there 
was a likelihood of the Government purchasing the same. The atti- 
tude taken by the landowner was rather this : ' ' I believe my land to 
be worth so much. Property values in the dune region have an 
upward tendency. If the Government was ready to consider buying 
my land we could discuss the terms of purchase with more definite- 
ness." In the limited time at my disposal I could not enter into 
extensive negotiations with landowners with a view to obtaining 
better prices than those quoted, or persuade them to have their 
holdings appraised for the purpose of arriving at a full authentic 
valuation of them. I had to be content with ascertaining what the 
owners of the bulk of the dune lands regarded their holdings as worth 
at the time of my inquiry. Practically none of the owners of very 
small tracts were interviewed. 

There appeared to be some speculation in the value of several 
large tracts of dune land, ancf I was informed that most of the out- 
standing options on these tracts had been obtained by speculators^ 
who are promoting various projects of questionable practicability, 
and that the purchase prices stipulated in these options do not 
represent the value of the dune land involved. These option prices 
vary between $350 and $600 per acre. The holdings of the Con- 
sumers Co., about 2,300 acres, are priced at slightly more than 
$1,000 per acre. 

Manifestly, none of these lands are actually worth $350 per acre 
at this time. A figure less than $200 per acre ])r()bably represents 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 13 

the actual value of the average tract of land not under the iidhience 
of urban values, due to proxnnity to cities. 

A small tract of lan(i, with improvements, in sec. 25, T. 37 N., 
R. 6 W., was sold in August, 1916, for $200 per acre, and the former 
owner of a tract in section 26, same township and range, advises 
that he recently sold 52 acres at $125 per acre. 

It is proper to state here that two or three gentlemen who own 
tracts of land in the dune country, or have an interest in such lands, 
have expressed a willingness to aid a national })ark project, and would 
sell their holdings for park })urposes at a lower price than for any 
commercial or other pur])ose to which their lands might be put. 
They were not prepared, however, to state what reductions they 
would care to make in the prices of their property for park purposes. 

In connection with this general statement, with respect to my 
inquiries into the value of dune lands for park purposes, it is perti- 
nent to refer here to the large map of the northern section of Porter 
County (p. 7), and it is suggested that it be read from the right 
toward the left, as the following information as to dune land values 
is studied. 

Mr. John S. Field, part owner of the Eastern Indiana Land Co., 
states that 1,445 acres, held by his company, are worth $350 per 
acre and are under an option at this price at the present time. 

Mr. A. Stanford White, of Chicago, who holds an interest in 2,996 
acres of dune lands belonging to the Thomas E. Wells estate, advises 
that the land of the estate has been offered at $350 per acre. 

Mr. Henry W. Leman, of (^hicago, states that the holchngs of 
Lansing Morgan, 325 acres, can proba])ly be ])urchased for $350 per 
acre. There is now an option on the property at this figur(\ 

Mr. E. D. Crumpacker states that 2,200 acres, owned by Charles 
Crumpacker, Cliarles Peterson, nnd himself, have been under option 
at $350 per acre, and that they are now held for sale at that figure. 

Mr. Henry W. Leman' s lioldings of 563 acres have been under 
option at $500 per acre. 

Mr. Leman, who is thoiouglily familiar with the status of the 
holdings of S. Komberg, 99 acres, states that they are held at $500 
per acre, and that he unchTstands they ar(> now unchM* option at $500 
per acre. 

Mr. John S. Field, chaii-inan of the Consumers Co., of Chicago, 
states that the holchngs of the Consumers Co., 2,300 acres, are re- 
garded as worth $2, 500, 000. 

The hohhnirs of the late F. A. ()g(h'n. 561 acres, nvc in tlie liands 
of the heirs. They ar(^ unch^r $100,000 l)()nd to (h4iv(M- clear title. 
I am advised, however, tliat th(> hinds ar(^ nn(h'r oj)tion at a figure 
between $500 and $600 per ac/v. 

Practicallv aU of tli(^ larger hohhngs must })v purchased in their 
en tire tv. 



14 PROPOSED SAND DUNL'S NATIONAL PARK. 

As I have already indicated, I believe that 9,000 to 13,000 acres 
of dune lands can probably be secured for park purposes for ap- 
proximately $200 per acre. The purchase price of a park of the 
size suggested would, therefore, be between $1,800,000 and $2,600,000. 

The cost of improving a park of this size would not require large 
Federal appropriations. The construction of four or five roads 
through the dunes from the generally traversed State highwa3^s on 
the south to the Lake Michigan shore, approximately 1 mile dis- 
tant, and perhaps ultimately a road along the shore itself, w^ould 
constitute the bulk of advisable improvements. The short roads 
through the dunes to the lake should be constructed at intervals of 
2 or 3 miles. As a matter of fact, there would be no necessity for 
building any roads in the near future. Various railroad lines now 
make the dune region readily accessible, and good automobile roads 
make it possible for motorists to reach the edge of the dune country 
without difficulty. 

The cost of administering and protecting a park of proper pro- 
portions would not call for large appropriations. A supervisor and 
two rangers, on duty throughout the year, could properly protect 
the park and give proper consideration to the needs of visitors to 
the region. During the summer a few extra temporary rangers 
would have to be employed to guard against fires and to protect 
visitors along the shore of the lake. The total cost of administra- 
tion and protection would probably not exceed $15,000. If a park 
smaller than the one suggested should be created, the cost of ad- 
ministering and operating the same would be less. 

Cordially yours, 

Stephen T. Mather, 

Assistant to the Secretai^y. 



APPENDIX A. 



HEARING ON THE SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK PROJECT, HELD 
AT CHICAGO, ILL., OCTOBER 30, 1916. 



Morning session, October 30, 1916. 

Proceedings had at a hearing held on Monday, October 30, 1916, 
at 10.30 o'clock a. m., pursuant to a certain resolution passed by the 
Senate of the United States September 7, 1916, directing the Secre- 
tary of the Interior to investigate the advisability of the securing of 
that portion of the counties of Lake, Laporte, and Porter, in the State 
of Indiana, bordering upon Lake Michigan, and commonly known as 
the ''Sand Dunes," by the United States Government, with a view to 
the creation of a national park, before Hon. Stephen T. Mather, 
Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior, sitting in Room 653 
Federal Building, Chicago, 111. 

The following appeared at the hearing and their remarks are in- 
cluded herein at the pages indicated : 

Page. 

Allison, T. W. , on behalf of the Prairie Club of Chicago 56 

Baber, Prof. Zoni.a, University of Chicago 48 

Bennett, Prof. Elliott, member of Indiana Academy of Sciences 81 

Brennan, George R., historian of the Illinois JSociely of Sons of the American 

Revolution 65 

Butler, Mrs. Thomas Meek, on behalf of the Daughters of Indiana, of Chicago .. 91 

Caldwell, Dr. Otis W. , on behalf of the Geographic Society of Chicago 29 

Chamberlain, Prof. T. C, University of Chicago 32 

Cowles, Prof. Henry C. , University of Chicago 43 

Cox, William H. , on behalf of the Pottawatomie Indians 96 

Davis, Will J. , vice president of the Indiana Society of Chicago 55 

Downing, Prof. Elliot R. , University of Chicago 93 

Durfee, Mrs. Frank E. , on behalf of the Arche Club 62 

Fessenden, Mrs. J. G. , on behalf of the Chicago Women's Clubs 75 

Flexner, Dr. Abraham, secretary of the Board of Education of the City of New 

York 23 

Fuller, H. F.. representing the Alden Kindred of America and the State Micro- 
scopical Society 96 

Jaxon, Honore J., on behalf of the Public ownership League and League in De- 
fense of Preparedness 89 

Jensen, Jens, on behalf of the City Clul) of Chicago and the Friends of our Na- 
tive Landscape 24 

Johnson, Hon. R. O.. mayor of Gary. Ind 60 

Knotts, A. F., ex -mayor of Gary, Ind 83 

Leman. Henry W.. Chicago, 111 69 

McCauley, Miss Lena M.. secretary of the Horticultural Society of Chicago 88 

15 



16 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

Page. 

Mcllvaiiie, Miss Caroline M., on behalf of the Chicago Historical Society 63 

Miller, Prof. Wilhelm, on behalf of the American Civic Association 77 

Mills, Enos A. , naturalist, author, lecturer on national parks 

Millspaugh, Prof. C. F., on behalf of the Wild Flower Preservation Society of 

America 50 

Monroe, Miss Harriet, artist; editor of Poetry 80 

Moody, Miss Minnie, on behalf of the Prairie Club of Chicago 47 

Morgan, J. G., Chesterton, Ind 76 

Noyes, La Verne W. , Chicago, HI 46 

O'Leary, John W. , president of the Chicago Association of Commerce 34 

Perkins, Dwight H. , landscape engineer 70 

Probst, Prof. A. F. , of the Chicago Preparatory Institute 75 

Redpath, George O. , on behalf of the mayor of Michigan City, Ind 61 

Reed, Earl H. , artist and author 27 

Rosenwald, Julius, president of Sears, Roebuck & Co 40 

Salisbury, Prof. Rollin D. . University of Chicago 41 

Schantz, Orpheus M., president of the Illinois Audubon Society 91 

Sherman, Mrs. John Dickinson, on behalf of the General Federation of Women's 

Clubs 59 

Taft, Lorado, sculptor 52 

Taylor, Dr. Graham, on behalf of the City Club of Chicago 36 

Wilson, Jesse E., former Assistant Secretary of the Department of the Interior. . 73 

Worthy, Mrs. John, president of the Outdoor League ^ 72 

Secretary Mather. Ladies and gentlemen, the meeting will please 
come to order. We are gathered here to-day to consider a national 
park project, a project to establish the Sand Dmies National Park 
in Indiana. I am here as the official representative of the United 
States Department of the Interior, which has been charged by Sena- 
tor Taggart's resolution with the duty of investigating this national 
park project and reporting to Congress the results of its investigation. 

Many of you may wonder whether there is any special reason why 
the Department of the Interior should be directed to undertake the 
study of this matter. A special reason does exist in the fact that this 
executive department has supervision of the whole national park 
system, with an aggregate area of 7,500 square miles, or about 
4,824,000 acres. 

It has occurred to me that a few words here about the activities 
of the Interior Department would not only prove interesting to you, 
because you do not come in direct contact with the department in 
Chicago, but would also acquaint you with the governmental organ- 
ization that will control tlie destinies of the Sand Dunes National Park 
should Congress in the future take favorable action on the proposi- 
tion that the park should be created. 

Out beyond the Mississippi River, in the great public land States, 
the Interior Department is more or less intimately in touch with the 
very fabric of western citizenship, but this section is devoid of public 
lands, arid lands, and national parks, and has few Indians and mines. 
Here the Interior Department is seen principally on patent certifi- 
cates, pension checks, and departmental publications. 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 17 

The department was created in 1849 to exercise jurisdiction over 
governmental organizations charged with the performance of duties 
relating to domestic affairs. At that time, the Secretary of the In- 
terior was given the supervision of the General Land Office, charged 
with the administration of the public lands ; the United States Patent 
Office; the Pension Office; the Census Office; the Public Buildings 
Commission; and other offices of minor importance. Since its organi- 
zation, the department, however, has had jurisdiction of one or two of 
these organizations taken from it and assigned to other departments. 
Federal organizations such as the Civil Service Commission and Inter- 
state Commerce Commission have been placed under the Secretary 
of the Interior, and later taken away and made separate institutions 
reporting direct to the President. Again, many more bureaus and 
miscellaneous organizations have been assigned to the Secretary, and 
to-day he has control of the Pension Office; the Patent Office; the 
Office of Indian Affairs, which cares for the Indians in all sections of 
the country; the General Land Office, which stiU administers the pub- 
lic land system and supervises the disposition of the public lands 
under the various land laws; the Geological Survey, with its great 
geologic, topographic, water resource, and land classification branches : 
the Reclamation Service, which is charged with the reclamation of 
arid lands in the West; the Bureau of Mines, which is doing such 
effective work in the mines of the country in the way of perfecting 
and operating safety devices, improving working conditions of miners, 
etc.; the Bureau of Education with its varied activities, including 
its general study of educational conditions all over the country, and 
its wonderful pioneer work that is being carried out, also its duty of 
caring for the natives of iVlaska, educating them, and instructing 
them in the science of raising reindeer, and encouraging them in 
other gainful pursuits; and last, but not least, the National Park 
Service, w^hich was created by tlie act of August 25, 1916. 

These are the nine bureaus of the department, but the Secretary of 
the Interior also has charge of the Freedmen's Hospital; the Columbia 
Institution for the Deaf; St. Ellizabeth's Hospital, the Government 
Hospital for the Insane with its 3,000 inmates, all of whom have come 
from the Army amd Navy, the District of Columbia, and the Federal 
penitentiaries; and other eleemosynary institutions; the Territories of 
Alaska and Hawaii; certain ])uihHngs and streets in the District of 
Columbia; th(^ construction of tlie Alaskan Railway; and numerous 
miscellaneous matters of more or less inip()rtan('(\ The Interior 
Department is one of the hirgest of tlie 10 executive de])artments. 
When it was organized, it had only a few hundred em])loyees. Now 
approximately 20,000 men and women are engaged in its service in 
Washington and in the fickle! . 

As one of Secretary Lane's assistants, 1 am charged with general 
supervision of the activities of tlie Bureau of Education, the National 
95781—17 2 



18 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

Park Service, the Government eleemos3mary institutions, and depart- 
mental relations to the governments of Alaska and Hawaii. That 
is why I am here to-day. 

Of all the bureaus of the Interior Department, the National Park 
Service is the youngest. It was established by the act of August 25^ 
1916, and gives us a definite, unified organization to administer the 
great parks which had theretofore been handled in the Secretary's 
office, most of the business relating to their interests being transacted 
by clerks in the office of the chief clerk of the department. 

This new bureau is charged with the admmistration, protection, 
and improvement of the 16 national parks, embracing an area of 
7,534 square miles or 4,821,303 acres, and 21 national monuments 
with a total area of 142.9 square miles, or 91,491 acres. 

Doubtless this question has already arisen in your mind, what is 
the difference between a national park and a national monument ? 
The difference is this: A national park is created by act of Congress. 
It is carved out of the public domain, set apart and dedicated as a 
park for the benefit and enjoyment of the people. The parks Con- 
gress expects to improve and make accessible, and in fact does appro- 
priate funds annually for their maintenance and improvement. The 
monuments, on the other hand, are established by presidential proc- 
lamation under the act of June 8, 1906, which provides that the 
President may, in his discretion, ^'declare by public proclamation 
historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other 
objects of historic or scientific interest that are situated upon the 
lands owned or controlled by the Government of the United States 
to be national monuments, and may reserve as a part thereof parcels 
of land, the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest 
area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects 
to be protected." Until this year Congress has not appropriated 
funds for the protection of the national monuments, but we have 
$21,500 to be expended in them during the current fiscal 3^ear. 

There is another provision of the act of June 8, 1906, which author- 
ized the Secretary of the Interior to accept private lands containing 
features of scenic or historic interest that may be donated to the 
Government, and such tracts may be set aside as national monuments. 
Representative William Kent and Mrs. Kent gave the wonderful 
Muir Woods to the Federal Government, and this tract was accepted 
and made a monument under the authority of this provision, and 
only within the past six months nearly 5,000 acres of land on Mount 
Desert Island, near Bar Harbor, Me., containing lakes, primeval 
forests, numerous species of flora and fauna, and other objects of 
scientific interest, were donated to the Government by Mr. George 
B. Dorr and other public-spirited citizens of New England. This 
tract was accepted and designated the Sieur de Monts National 
Monument bv President Wilson on Julv 8. 



PROPOSED SAXD DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 



19 



So a monument may be created without congressional action, and 
I may state that so far as its administration is concerned the National 
Park Service act gives us the same authority to grant concessions 
in reservations of this character and otherwise develop them as we 
may exercise in the administration of the parks. Therefore, to all 
intents and purposes, they constitute the same type of reservation. 

At this point, I am going to insert in the record for your infomia- 
tion a list of the national parks and monuments, with data as to 
their locations, dates of creation, areas, and physical characteristics: 



Natwnal parks administered by the National Park Service, Department of the Interior} 
[Xumber, 16; total area, 7, 534 square miles; chronologically in order of creation.] 



Name. 



Hot Springs Res- 
ervation. 

Yellowstone 




When 

established. 



I Area 
! (miles). 



Special characteristics. 



Wyoming, 
Montana, 
and Idaho. 



Apr. 20,1832 



Mar. 1,1872 »3,34S 



n 



rasa Grande Ruin. ' Arizona . 



Mar. 2, 1889 



Sequoia ' California .Sept. 25, 1890 : 252 



Yosemite do . 



Oct. 1, 1890 



1,125 



General Grant do do 



Mount Ranier Washington... Mar. 2,1899 324 



46 hot springs possessing curative properties- 
Many hotels and boarding houses— 20 bath- 
houses under public control. 

More geysers than in all rest of world togetb* 
er— Boiling springs— Mud volcanoes — Pet- 
rified forests— Grand Canyon of the Yellow- 
stone, remarkable for gorgeous coloring — 
Large lakes— Waterfalls — V'ast wilderness 
inhabited by deer, elk, bison, moose, ante- 
lope, bear, mountain sheep, etc.— Greatest 
wiM bird and animal preserve in world. 

These ruins are one of tne most noteworthy 
relics of a prehistoric age and people within 
the limits of the United States. Discov- 
ered in ruinous condition in 1694. 

The Big Tree national park — 12,000 sequoia 
trees over 10 feet in diameter, some 2.5 to 36 
feet in diameter — Towering mountain ran- 
ges — Startling precipices. 

Valley of world-lamed beauty — Lofty cliffs — 
Romantic vistas— Waterfalls of extraordi- 
nary' height — 3 groves of big trees— Large 
areas of snowy peaks — Waterwheel falls. 

Created to preserve the celebrated General 
Grant Tree^ .35 feet in diameter— 6 miles 
from Sequoia National Park. 

Largest accessible single peak glacier sys- 
tem— 28 glaciers, some of large size— 48 
square miles of glacier, .'0 to 500 feet thick- 
Wonderful subalpine wild-flower fields. 

Lake ofextraordinary blue in crater of extinct 
volcano, no inlet, no outlet— Sides 1,000 
feet high. 

Well known by reason of a cavern therein 
having man}-" miles of galleries and numer- 
ous chambers of considerable size contain- 
ing many peculiar formations. 
(Many sulphur and other .springs possessing 
•] medicinal value, under Government regu- 
lation. 

Small rugged hill containing prehistoric 
ruins— Practically a local park. 

Most notable and best preserved prehistoric 
cUlT dwellings in United States, if not in the 
world. 

Rugged mountain region of unsurpassed Al- 
pine character— 250 glacier-fed lakes of ro- 
mantic beauty— 60 small glaciers— Peaks of 
unusual sha|)e — I*recipices thou.sands of 
feet deep— Almost sensational scenery of 
marked individuality. 

Heart of the Rockies — Snowy range, peaks 
11,000 to 14.250 feet altitude— Remarkable 
records of glacial period. 

1 Mt. McKinlev National Park, the seventeenth member of the park system, was established by the 

Act of February 26, 1917. It has an area of 2,200 square miles. 

2 In Wyoming, 3,114 square miles; in Montana. I9s sqioare miles; in Idaho, 36 square miles. 



Crater Lake Oregon. 

Wind Cave Dakota . 



May 22,1902 | 249 

I 

Jan. 9,1903 16 



Piatt Oklahoma 

SullysHill Dakota... 



/July 1,1902 \ ,. 
\Apr. 21,1904 / ^* 



Mesa Verde Colorado 

Boundary do 

changed. 
Glacier Montana 




20 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 



National parks administered by the National Park Service, Department of the Interior- 
Continued. 



Name. 


Location. 


When 
established. 


Area 
(miles). 


Special characteristics. 


Hawaii 


Hawaiian Is- 
lands. 

California 


Aug. 1, 1916 
Aug. 9,1916 


118 
124 


Three separate areas: 2 — Kilauea, continu- 


Lassen Volcanic... 


ously active for century, and Mauna Loa, 
altitude 13,675 (largest active volcano in 
world, erupting every decade)— are on Ha- 
waii; Haleakala, on Maui, 10,000 feet high, 
with tremendous rift in summit 8 miles 
across and 3,000 feet deep; contains many 
cones, gorgeous tropical forests, mahogany 
groves, and lava caves; erupted 200 years 
ago. 
Only active volcano in United States prop- 
er— Lassen Peak, 10,465 feet in altitude- 
Cinder Cone, 6,879 feet— Hot springs—Mud 
geysers — Ice caves — Majestic canyons — 
Numerous lakes— Fine forests. 



National monuments administered by the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. 

[Number, 21; total area, 142.9 square miles.] 



Name, 



Devils Tower 

Montezuma Castle. 

El Morro 



Chaco Canyon . 
Muir Woods... 



Pinnacles. 



Tumacacori . 



Mokuntuweap 

Shoshone Cavern. . 
Natural bridges . . . 

Gran Qiiivira 

Sitka 



Rainbow Bridge . 



Location. 



Wyoming. 
Arizona. . . 



New Mexico . 

do 

California . . . 



Date of last 
proclamation. 



Area 
(acres), 



Description. 



Sept. 24,1906 1,152 
Dec. 8, 1906 ' 160 



.do. 



160 



.do. 



Mar. 11,1907 120,629 

Jan. 9, 1908 295 

i 
Jan. 16,1908 2,080 



Arizona . 



Utah. 



Wyoming . 
Utah 



New Mexico . 
Alaska 



Utah. 



Sept. 15, 19015 

July 31,1909 

Sept. 21, 1909 
Sept. 25, 1909 

Nov. 1, 1909 



10 

15,840 

210 
1 2, 740 

1 160 



I 
Mar. 23. 1910 ' 57 



Mav 30,1910 



160 



Remarkable natural rock tower, of volcanic 
origin, 1,200 feet in height. 

Prehistoric cliff -dwelling ruin of unusual 
size situated in a niche in face of a vertical 
cliff. Of scenic and ethnological interest. 

Enormous sandstone rock eroded in form of a 
castle, upon which inscriptions have lieen 
placed by early Spanish explorers. Con- 
tains cliff-dweller ruins. Of great historic, 
scenic, and ethnologic interest. 

Contains numerous cliff-dweller ruins, includ- 
ing communal houses, in good condition, 
and but little excavated. 

Contains one of the most noted redwood 
groves in California, and was donated hy 
Hon. William Kent, Member of Congress. 
Located 7 miles from San Francisco. 

Contains many spirelike rock forriiations, 600 
to 1,000 feet high, which are visible for many 
miles; also numerous caves, and other 
formations. 

Contains ruin of Franciscan mission dating 
from sixteenth century, until recent years 
in fair preservation, but now rapidly dis- 
integrating. 

Contains magnificent gorge, depth from 800 to 
2,000 feet, with precipitous walls and many 
waterfalls. Of great beaut j' and scenic 
interest. 

Cavern of considerable extent, located near 
Cody. 

Contains 3 natural bridges, among largest ex- 
amples of their kind. Largest bridge is 222 
feet high, 65 feet thick at top of arch; arch is 
28 feet wide; span, 261 feet; height of span, 
157 feet. Other two are only slightly 
smaller. 

One of the most important of earliest Spanish 
mission ruins in the Southwest. Monu- 
ment also contains Pueblo ruins. 

Park of great natural beauty, and historic in- 
terest as scene of massacre of Russians by 
Indians. Contains 16 totem poles of best 
native workmanship. 

Unique natural bridge of great scientific in- 
terest and symmetry. Height 309 feet 
abo :e water, and span is 278 feet, in shape 
of rainbow. 



1 Estimated. 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 



21 



National monuments administered by the National Park Service, Department of the 

Interior — Continued . 



Name. 



Location. 



Lewis and Clark | Montana. 
Cavern. 



Colorado Colorado . 



Petrified Forest . . . Arizona . 



Navajo do. 

Papago Saguaro do . 

Dinosaur Utah.. 

Sieiir de Monts Maine. 



Caoulin Mountain New Mexico . . 



Date of last 
proclamation. 


Area 
(acres). 


May 


16,1911 


160 


May 


24,1911 


13,883 


July 


31,1911 


25, 625 


Mar. 


14, 1912 


360 


Jan. 


31,1914 


2,050 


Oct. 


4, 1915 


80 


July 


8, 1916 


15,000 


Aug. 


9, 1916 


681 ! 



Description. 



Immense limestone cavern of great scientific 
interest, magnificently decorated with 
stalactite formations. Ca\ern now closed 
to public because of depredations by \ an- 
dals. 

Contains many lofty monoliths, and is won- 
derful example of erosion, and of great 
scenic beauty and interest. 

Contains abundance of petrified coniferous 
trees, one of which forms a small natural 
bridge. Is of great scientific interest. 

Contams numerous pueblo, or clitT-dweller 
ruins, in good preser\ ation. 

Contains splendid collection of characteristic 
desert flora and numerous pictographs. 
Interesting rock formations. 

Contains deposits of fossil remains of prehis- 
toric animal life of great scientific interest. 

Mountainous area adjacent to Bar Harbor 
which includes 10 mountains and se\ eral 
lakes. Is very wild and rugged. Most 
romantic and beautiful mingling of moun- 
tain and ocean scenery on Atlantic coast. 

Contains cinder cone of geologically recent 
formation. 



As I have stated, the national parks have been carved out of the 
pubhc domain. Congress has never made a practice of purchasing 
hinds for park purposes; it has simply taken lands already in Federal 
ownership and dedicated them as parks. As you know, Yellowstone 
National Park, which was created in 1872, was, w^ith the exception of 
Hot Springs, the first reservation of this character to be established. 
At the time of its creation it was at such a distance from settlements 
on public lands that no part of the park area had passed into private 
hands. Its total area of 2,000,000 acres is therefore wholly under the 
control of the Department of the Interior. The parks that have been 
created in later years, however, contain within their boundaries con- 
siderable private holdings which have been a source of great annoy- 
ance to us, and they have especially been a hindrance to our adminis- 
tration of these parks. Congress has not, until its last session, appro- 
priated money to buy any of these private holdings. I want to 
emphasize this point because you should clearly understand that if 
favorable action is taken on the proposition now before us, Congress 
wiU be going far afield. The act of creating a national park is the 
work of Congress and not in our sphere. Some of you doubtless know 
that land has been purchased in the Appalachian Mountains, but 
these purchases were made under the Weeks Act of Marcli 1, 1911, 
and involve forest lands entirely, lands which contain timber growths 
having important relation to the flow of navigable streams. These 
reservations are, therefore, not purchased for recreational ])urp()ses. 

As I have stated, we have not been abh* to persuade ('Ongress to 
appi()[)riatc funds for the purchase of |)l•i^'atc lioldiugs within the 



22 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

national parks already created until this year, when, by considerable 
effort, we did manage to secure $50,000 toward the purchase of the 
wonderful Giant Forest in the Sequoia National Park in California. 
The larger part of this forest was in private hands and contained the 
largest of the big trees. I was personally able to secure an option 
on about 700 acres of these holdings this summer for $70,000. We 
succeeded, by working long and strenuously, in persuading Congress 
to give the $50,000 toward their purchase, and I am glad to say that 
very recently the balance required under the option, which expires 
the 1st of January, $20,000, has been subscribed outside of Govern- 
ment circles and as a private matter/ and will shortly be announced. 
In this way there has been saved for all time what is undoubtedly 
the finest forest in this hemisphere, if not in the world. 

I have now given you a fairly comprehensive statement of the 
jurisdiction of the National Park Service, the two classes of reserva- 
tions, national parks and national monuments, and I have emphasized, 
I think, the fact that the Department of the Interior has no voice in 
the establishment of either parks or monuments. In the case of the 
parks. Congress is the creating agency, and in the case of the monu- 
ments, the President has the authority to establish this type of 
reservation. 

Now, let us take up the matter which we have to consider to-day. 
I will read the resolution passed in the Senate of the United States 
September 7, 1916: 

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Interior be, and is hereby, directed to investigate 
and report to Congress, at its next session, tlie advisability of the securing, by pur- 
chase or otherwise, all that portion of the counties of Lake, Laporte, and Porter, in 
the State of Indiana, bordering upon Lake Michigan, and commonly known as the 
sand dunes, with a view that such lands be created a national park; that the said 
Secretary shall also report the cost of acquiring such lands and the probable expense 
of maintaining them as a part of the national park system. 

This is signed by the Secretary of the Senate. Now, in line with 
this resolution. Secretary Lane has designated me to come here and 
hold this hearing. I am going to begin by calling on a number of 
the official representatives of different organizations that are inter- 
ested in tliis project. Let me say in passing that I was able to get 
the map you see yonder at rather short notice. On Friday night I 
telegraphed from here down to my secretary in Washington to have 
the Geological Survey get busy and make us this Uttle map, and it 
arrived yesterday. It gives a section of the dunes, and, really, I 
think it is the most important and most interesting section that will 
be touched upon as we hear from the different speakers. Now, I 
want to state that we have the privilege of having in the room with 
us to-day a man who is not only interested in this project, but also 

1 It was subsequently announced that the National Geographic. Society contributed the additional 
fund of $20,000 necessary to complete the transaction that saved the Giant Forest. 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 23 

ill the broader work that we are trying to do with these playgrounds. 
I need but mention liis name to inform you who he is. I refer to 
Dr. Abraham Flexner, secretary of the General Education Board 
and member of the Board of Eckication of New York. 

Dr. Flexner, I take great pleasure in calling on you to say a 
few words in regard to this project for the preservation of the dunes. 
[Applause.] 

Dr. Abraham Flexner. Mr. Secretary, ladies and gentlemen, I 
am here this morning altogether by accident. I happened to be 
speniUng a night with Mr. Rosenwald, and I learned from him that 
a hearing was to be held here this morning for the purpose of deter- 
mining the fate of the sand dunes. Now, at first blush this looks 
like a local proposition. Whether the sand dunes on the shores of 
Lake Michigan are to be preserved or not might seem the business of 
the people of Indiana, or, perhaps, the business of the people of 
Chicago. The question may very fairly be asked: Why does this 
concern a man who lives and pursues his occupation in the city of 
New York? May I say, Mr. Secretary, that in no sense is this a 
local question. People who live in the city of New York have just 
as near and dear an interest in the preservation of recreational zones 
and educational facilities on the shores of Lake Michigan as they 
have in the preservation of similar objects in Yellowstone Park, or 
the Yosemite Valle}", or Niagara Falls, or in the city of New York 
itself. These are national and not local questions; and therefore I 
am extremely happy to know that the United States Senate has 
made of it a national and not simply a local question. Recrea- 
tionally, the sand dunes perhaps concern the people who live in their 
immediate vicinity more than they do people who live anywhere 
else; but actually, from the standpoint of their scientific interest and 
their educational value, these dunes are of general and not merely 
local importance. And because they are of general and not merely 
local importance they are proper objects of the care, interest, and 
solicitude of the Government of the United States. Civilized govern- 
ments are distinguished by the degree of interest which they take in 
problems of this nature. In GeiTnany, the Government of which is 
interested not only in trade but in science and education, a proposi- 
tion of this soi't would never be brought up for puldic discussion. It 
would be taken as a matter of course that the Government would 
protect and conserve the general scientific, educational, and esthetic 
interest in objects of this sort against a tendency to exploit them or 
to make them subserve merely a coinmercial oi- industrial purpose. 
If o\ir Government is to be adequate to the vital needs of the people 
of the United States— not only their industrial and commercial 
needs but their intellectual, esthetic, and scientific needs as well — 
it wiU have to take under its protection before it is too late not only 
the sand dunes on the shores of Lake Michigan but similar objects 



24 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

throughout the length and breadth of this country. And I am 
dehghted to find that so large and representative an audience has 
come to present to and enforce upon the representatives of the 
Government of the United States this very important point. Thank 
you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. When I went down to the dunes some years 
ago, I think I was under the guidance of my friend, Mr. Jens Jensen. 
There were several of us in the party and we climbed over some of 
the hills there and down in the valleys, perhaps not with the same 
enthusiasm at first that Mr. Jensen did, but after he had gotten us 
well into the spirit of it, we forgot we were tired, and followed him 
wherever he offered to lead us. I think, therefore, that it will be 
very appropriate for him to start right now and lead us on another 
trip, speaking, as he will, on behalf of the Chicago City Club, and 
also on behalf of the Friends of our Native Landscape, of which he is 
president. We will take pleasure in listening to Mr. Jensen. [Ap- 
plause.] 

Mr. Jens Jensen. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, it seems 
to me, as Mr. Flexner said before, that there should be no question 
at all about this dune park proposition. Just think of us poor 
prairie folks, who have not the Adirondack Mountains, as has our 
good friend from New York, and who have not the mountains of 
California, as has our good friend Mr. Mather. In fact, the onl}^ 
thing in the world that we have that has any similarity at all to the 
Adirondacks and the Rocky Moun tarns is our dunes over in Indiana. 
The 200 feet of Mount Tom look just as big to me as the Rocky 
Mountains did when I visited them some years ago, and bigger to me, 
in fact, than did the Berkshires when I made my pilgrimage to those 
wonderful hills of Massachusetts. [Applause.] We need the dunes. 
If you had been with me yesterday and stood on top of one of the 
great blowouts, as we term them, and looked into the golds, the reds, 
the soft tinges of brown, and the soft shades of green that were just 
visible in some of those dune woods, you would have come back to 
your home saying, '^We need the dunes; we can never do without 
them. We who live in the midst of this conglomeration of build- 
ings, cement sidewalks, and stone pavements, how can we ever be 
without such a wonderful vision, a vision that we carry vividly with 
us until we can make our next pilgrimage?" If you had gone with 
me along one of the ancient trails, between Michigan City and Chicago, 
among those giant pines — I call them giant pines, because they are 
that way to me, and to aU of us poor prairie folk in Illinois — you 
would have come back to your home saying, "Never, never must 
those wonderful pines be destroyed." The whole city of Chicago, 
and those people who live in our adjoining towns, as well as our 
good friends in Indiana, should become acquainted with that country 
in order that thay may refresh themselves and revivify their souls. 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 25 

It was many years ago that I made my first pilgrimage to the 
dunes. It was previous to the time our good friend Mather accom- 
panied me. I can never describe to you the impression I received 
on the occasion of my first visit; but I will tell you this, the impres- 
sion I received yesterday, even after having gone through the dunes 
for more than 20 long years, was the greatest and most wonderful 
impression that I ever received there. I would give anything if I 
could only impart that wonderful impression, that wonderful feeling, 
to any one of you. It is something that will stay with me as long as I 
live. Those are the things for which the dunes stand and which 
make them of such value to us. There are lots of folk who say, 
''Well, so many of us do not see these wonderful things." Oh, how 
materialistic we are. There is a soul in each of us and it only needs 
awakening; and when it is awakened then there will burst upon us 
the first realization of the wonderful beauty of the dune country. 
Suppose there are only a few of us who can see those wonderful 
things. That is to be regretted. But suppose the great painter, 
the master painter, sees them. Suppose the master poet sees them. 
I had the profound pleasure of spending an evening recently with 
Rabindranath Tagore, the Indian poet, who has seen wonderful 
and beautiful things such as these in far-off India, and he is bringing 
their message out to all the world. Suppose only a few of us are 
able to see these things; but suppose also they come under the vision 
of a man like that. Is that not worth while? [Applause.] Now, I 
am not going to talk about recreational needs. I understand it has 
been assigned to me to talk about the trees. I do not like to be 
assigned to anything. [Laughter.] There are others who will tell 
you all about the trees, the many varieties there are, and the reason 
those many varieties are there: and how the West, the East, the 
North, and the South meet in this wonderful dune country. 

What I want to impress on your minds is the beauty and grandeur 
of this dune country. There are no dunes in America like those over 
there. The dunes on the various ocean coasts, the dunes that are 
salt water dunes, are of an entirely different type. They totally 
lack the poetic inspiration those dunes of Indiana have. The salt 
sea breezes prevent a great deal of vegetation from growing, and 
therefore the ocean dunes are not covered with vegetation as ours 
are. They are not filled with wonderful poetic inspiration as are our 
chmes. They do not display the wonderful color effete t you get these 
days down in our dunes, such as can not be found anywlierc else in 
the world. Nowhere else can be found sucli a wonderful outburst of 
flora in the spring as is found in our (hme woods, when they are cov- 
ered with a blue sea of wonderful lupin, or phlox, or violets, or many 
other plants, all wonderful in their color display. Nowhere else can 
be found such a wonderful expression of spring. The other dunes 
do not have it. That is why our foreign friends must come to our 



26 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

dunes to find this wonderful poetic expression. They can not get it 
at Cape Cod; they can not find it down in Virginia or in the Carolinas ; 
they can not find it even on the coasts of France, Holland, or Den- 
mark. There I, as a boy, have often treaded the great dunes that 
sometimes extended over 16 miles inland, back into the country. 
But there is nothing of grace or beauty about those dunes. On the 
contrary, they are a very serious menace indeed, except where the 
Government has taken measures to prevent them from drifting 
inland and overwhelming the country. Our dunes are of an entirely 
different type. They are poetic, they are beautiful, they are won- 
derful; they are just about the most beautiful and wonderful thing 
we have in the Middle West. 

Only a few days ago I stood on the bluffs of the Mississippi, north 
of Savannah, and looked up the Mississippi River, with the sun shining 
on the cornfields of northern Illinois, and below us that mighty river 
in a deep, mystic mood. It was a wonderful picture, but not nearly 
as wonderful a picture as 1 saw in the dunes yesterday, with a group 
of friends. And, friends, remember one thing: Though we always 
talk so much about the wonderful national parks of the West, how 
many of us are ever able to make a pilgrimage to those parks ? How 
many of us ? What are we doing for the tens of thousands of people 
in this noisy, grimy, seething city, who need to revive their souls and 
to refresh the inner man as well as the outer ? What are we doing 
for them ? There is only one thing tha t we can give them, and that 
is the opportunity to revive their souls in the outglow of beauty from 
the dunes over yonder on the shores of Lake Michigan. If we should 
permit that wonderful place to be sold for a "mess of pottage,'' it 
would be one of the worst calamities that could befall us. Think of 
the good Indiana folk. The only outlet they have to Lake Michigan 
is right there, the only outlet that is left for them. Tliat is the only 
breathing place they have on the shores of beautiful Lake Michigan, 
and there is nothing left to the great State of Indiana if that wonder- 
ful piece of country is done away with. Now, I am not going to tire 
you with my remarks any longer. I am just going to say one final 
word to you, and it is this: Tliat it would be a sad thing, indeed, for 
this great Central West if this wonderful dune country should be 
taken away from us and on it built cities like Gary, Indiana Harbor, 
and others. It would show us to be in fact what we often are accused 
of being — a people who only have dollars for eyes. We are in duty 
bound to preserve some of the wild beauty of our country for our 
descendants. I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. Before calling on the next speaker for the 
various organizations represented here, I think at this point we 
would be very glad to have a word from Mr. Earl H. Reed. Mr. 
Reed is an author and an artist, and you may see some specimens of 
his etchings of the dunes country along the walls here. They show 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 27 

his deep affection for the dunes and his intimate knowledge of them. 
Mr. Reed's books ''The Voices of the Dunes" and "The Dune Coun- 
try" are also eminently worthy of mention in introducing him to 
you. Mr. Reed, I am glad you are here to-day. [Applause.] 

Mr. Earl H. Reed. Mr. vSecretary, ladies, -and gentlemen, there 
are many sides to the question which has now come up as to the 
advisability and feasibility of preserving that portion of the Indiana 
shore of Lake Michigan which includes what we call the dune country. 

It is a country of important historic interest. The romance of 
early exploration and primitive Indian history and legend connected 
with this region has fiUed many pages of American literature. 

Tlie immense value of the dune country to botanists, ornithologists, 
and investigators in various other fields of natural science will be 
spoken of by others appearing at this hearing. It is more particu- 
larly the physical beauty of the country that I have been asked to 
invite you to consider in connection with its possible acquirement as 
a Government park. 

It has been my privilege to spend many years in the study of the 
comitry as an artist, writer, and nature lover. In it I have found 
an inexhaustible fund of material. The shore line of the lake, from 
a point about a mile west of Millers, Ind., to another point perhaps 
3 or 4 miles west of Michigan City, Ind., and inland to the tracks of 
the principal railroad arteries between Chicago and the eastern sea- 
board, includes the most magnificent and picturesque sand dunes in 
the world and some of the finest natural scenery in the United States. 
The superb curving shore line, a continuous sandy beach, is prac- 
tically uninterrupted for 18 miles. 

While the shifting dunes are constantly changing under the influ- 
ence of the winds, the fixed dunes predominate. The plant and tree 
life on them is abundant and is sufficient to maintain the general 
topography of the region. 

It is only within the past few years that the picturesque (|uahty 
of the dune country has become known to lovers of American land- 
scape. Thousands of people now visit it, lured by its varied attrac- 
tions, and it is difficult to obtain scats on the electric trains from 
Chicago to points between Gary and Michigan City on Sundays and 
holidays. The easy accessibility of the country to a large center of 
])opulation. outside of the vState in which it lies offers a strong argu- 
ment in favor of its control by tlie Government. 

As a refuge for migratory birds the reserve would })e invaluable. 
It is within the Mississippi Valley fhght zone, and during the ])eriods 
of migration the bird life in the dune country is abundant, but uu- 
fortunately finds little protection among the wooded hills. Its de- 
struction is continuous and persistent. Aliens who have been accus- 
tomed to kill migrating small birds for food in the countries of their 
)irth. range through the hills in the spring and autumn, and many 



28 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

thousands of songsters find their way to the city in bJood-soaked 
bags. It is to be regretted that some of the natives in the neighbor- 
hood also indulge in this lawless shooting. 

A few prairie cliickens and partridges, birds which are rapidly dis- 
appearing from our Western States, still exist among the dunes in 
limited numbers, and are hunted relentlessly. The State of Indiana 
appears to be unable to prevent this illegal slaughter, although its 
game wardens are supposed to enforce its bird and game law here as 
well as in other parts of the State. The mai-shy areas and ponds, 
which intersperse the region back of the sand hills, would furnish a 
much needed zone of safety for migrating ducks, geese, and other 
water fowl, many of which are now being destroyed here, both in and 
out of the game season. Game birds now have no legal refuge in this 
part of our country except as to time of killing. The contiguity of 
the region to a city of over 2.000,000 people renders adequate pro- 
tection difficult which Government supervision would accompHsh most 
effectually. 

Apparently the only argument against the acquirement of the ter- 
ritory by the Government for park purposes is that of the utilitarian. 
If the region was already a national preserve we would hsten with 
as little patience to the man who proposed its destruction for com- 
mercial purposes as we would to one who advocated the complete 
absorption of Niagara FaUs for power uses, or the installation of 
blast furnaces in Yellowstone Park. 

Commercial encroachment on this region has commenced, and if 
this wonderful country, with its infinite natural beauty, its great store 
of material for artistic, educational, and scientific research, its possi- 
bihties as a recreation ground for millions yet unborn, is to be pre- 
served for the use of its rightful owners — the public — it would seem 
that a most opportune time had come to accomplish it. 

Our civilization has reached a point where we can afford to emerge 
from the bricks and mortar of the town, from the nerve-racking noise 
and stifling smoke of a complex commercialism, and look for quiet 
beauty spots where sustenance can be found for the finer sides of our 
lives. 

We hang fine pictures upon the walls of our homes, stock our libra- 
ries with the world's best literature, and surround our houses with 
carefully nurtured gardens, but we erect disfiguring repulsive adver- 
tising signs, and belching smokestacks among our noble landscapes, 
which are just as vital to our intellectual life as our pictures and 
books. 

The despoiler is at the gates of the dune country. The unsightly 
advertisingsigns and the smokestacks are beginning to mar the scenery. 
The sand and factory sites are being publicly offered for sale. In a 
few more years one of America's great natural wonders will be lost if 
the present efforts fail which are being made to save it. 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 29 

When the picturesque beauty of tliis range of vast and solemn hills 
has been destroyed it can never be recovered. With the inevitable 
increase in population and commercial greed the region will soon be 
eliminated as a possible public possession. No economic necessity 
exists for the utilization of this territory for commercial purposes. 
We have plenty of room for factories, noise, and smoke outside of 
the area which nature has provided for other and nobler uses. We 
do not need to sacrifice this great store of natural beauty upon the altar 
of Mammon, and if we would preserve this priceless heritage for 
coming generations, action must be taken before the opportunity is 
gone forever. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. One of the organizations that has always taken 
an active interest in the sand dunes, and is now taking an interest in 
their preservation, is the Geographic Society of Chicago. I am going 
to call on its president. Dr. Otis W. Caldwell, to speak for the society. 
[Applause.] 

Dr. Otis W. Caldwell. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I have 
a letter which I wish to read as a preface to my remarks this morning. 
This letter was written by Mrs. Charles L. Williams, under date of 
October 28, 1916. This letter was handed me just a few moments 
ago, and I desire to read it before speaking to the particular point 
to which I was asked to (Hrect attention. It reads as follows: 

To the gentlemen assembled in the interests of the national park: As a resident of 
one of the highest dunes on the southern shore of Lake Michigan, I am deeply inter- 
ested in the matter of converting this wonderful country into a national park, and thus 
saving it in its natural beauty to the people of these United iStates. Now, as I look 
out through our cabin windows, and view Lake Michigan — that great expanse of blue, 
stretching as far as the eye can see — and its soft white sandy border, and the innumer- 
able dunes, some great white sandy forms, others covered with forest trees and vines, 
all radiant in their wonderful glory, they are appealing to me. They seem to say, 
*'Save us. Save us from tlu; smoke and grime of the dirty factory. Save us, that 
we may be free, for the pleasure and l)enefit of the children of men. Other shores have 
been converted into the mill and the factory. Save us, save us as a breathing place, 
as a breathing place for the people. They are carrying oiu- mountains of sand away. 
Save us. They are destroying our forests. Save us. Oh, please save us. We wi.'^h 
to rest free in our beauty for the solace of the toiler and the pleasure and admiration 
of all." The Ijeauty I see daily from my window truly is calling thus to nie. We 
have lived here in our cabin, and have enjoyed it. Other ("hicagoans can enjoy it 
as freely. But if this hmd is converted into factories and used for commercial pur- 
poses, the future millions that are destined to live on tlie south shore will be shut out 
from the lake front, away from tlie privileges and pleasures of the dunes. Yours, as 
a lover of nature. 

This is signed 1)V tliis good woman who Jix'cs on top of one of the 
(hmes. [Ap[)lause.] 

Now, I have Ixh^u asked, as president of the (reographic Society of 
Chicago, to confine mysc^lf to tlie one phase of tlic eckicational uses 
of this great (hnu^ ])ark aica. On the 27tii of last May, early in t he 
morning, I started ont with a chiss of o'.] college students, to spend 
th(^ day in trying to discoNcr >oin(> of the ways in whicli the plant life 



30 PKuPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

of this dune region is related to this constantly changing area of the 
earth's surface. As passengers on the same train on which I was 
there were 106 pupils from the llyde Park High School, accompanied 
by one of their teachers. Ten of those pupils were art students, 
going out to view some of these scenes which our friend Mr. Reed 
has so excellently reproduced for us in those etchings of his 
which are placed on this wall. On that same trip, but not on the 
same train, there were 28 students, under the direction of Prof. 
Umbach, of Naperville, 111., from the college located in that city. 
There were two other college classes in that immediate part of the 
dunes on that day. One of the other speakers will indicate to you, 
I think, somewhat more of the extent to which the dunes are used 
for educational purposes; but it is my privilege to try to direct your 
attention to the significance, as I see it, of this constant stream of 
people coming up from the different institutions of Indiana, and 
coming out from the different institutions of Illinois, and coming 
down from the different institutions of Michigan to study in the dunes. 
Ex-president Eliot, in a remarkable article, a copy of which you 
may secure if you will write to the General Educational Board, 61 
Broadway, New York, has set forth for us, as no one has perhaps, the 
need of sense training in our modern life. You can not read Tho- 
reau, you can not read Emerson, you can not read Longfellow, you 
can not read John Muir, you can not read Kipling, you can not read 
the Bible, without knowing nature. The five senses are fundamental 
to our education; and these classes of students going out from the 
dunes, while their attention is immediately focused upon the study 
of the trees, or upon the study of the birds, or upon the stud}^ of the 
geological or geographical conditions that are found there, are using 
these same five senses. They are fundamental, as I say, to our 
education. May I point out to you that in our growth of our great 
industrial centers, those that we have in Illinois and Indiana, we 
are in danger through the very success of those men and women who 
now make up those great industrial centers, because through their 
success we are in danger of encroaching upon ourselves in such a 
way that we remove from our children the natural means of develop- 
ing these senses which are fundamental to their education. The 
success of the father in our modern life may place him in an mdustrial, 
social, and intellectual environment that makes it difficult for him 
to provide for his sons and daughters, young men and young women, 
the kind of things that gave him keenness of eye, keenness of ear, and 
even the fiber of moral character that has enabled him to be a success. 
We must not forget that. And more than that, underlying the 
motive that is actuating these various classes that are going out to 
study at the dunes, there is this fundamental thing, and it is the 
need for objectified, concrete situations out of which we may train 
our children. 



PROPOSED SAXD DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 31 

I was at a certain Thomas concert a few years ago, when that 
wonderful Pilgrmis' Chorus was bemg played. It was played as 
about the tMrd or fourth number on the program. I did not have 
a very good musical training, but I had enough so that I liked that 
wonderful Pilgrims' Chorus, and I never missed an opportunity of 
going to hear it whenever I could do so. But sitting near me was a 
maru who, at about the middle of that great piece of music, whis- 
pered, and said, "I have got all of this I can stand,'' and he got up 
and went out. And he was right. His training had given him 
capacity for just what he had secured, and he had gotten all that he 
could carry, and then he went out. And so it is with us. As we 
train our senses by increasing the concrete situations that we think 
out and rationalize, we are increasing our capacity for further use 
of those same senses. You and I do not get the same thing from the 
Thomas concerts, or the Chicago Orchestra, rather — you see how far 
back I date in Chicago when I think of it as the Thomas Orchestra — • 
you and I do not get the same thing when they play that great 
Pilgrims' Chorus or any other piece of music, but we take from it in 
terms of the extent to which our own training will permit us to take 
from that piece of music. It is so with Nature, and it is so with our 
various training all the way through. One of the most fundamental 
needs of modern education is that our children, our young people, 
may study and use their senses, and grow into independent thought 
and judgment. But it might be urged that that is not the utili- 
tarian phase of the dunes. With regard to that, let me say that a 
week ago last Sunday, with Mr. Bowster, who is present, and with 
some others who are in the audience perhaps, I attended the funeral 
exercises of Mr. E. L. Furness, the man for whom Furnessville is 
named, and the man who is responsible for cutting off a very large 
part of the forests in the region of the dunes, in and about Furness- 
ville. Mr. Furness was 84 years old, and past, at the time of his 
death. While with me a year ago at dinner at my house, he said 
one evening, ''I wish I had my chance back to help save the forests 
of the dunes." I want to bear his message to those who arc present 
from Indiana. I am an Indianian, and proud of it. 

George Ade says, ''Some of the best people we have come from 
Indiana; and the bettor they are, the faster they come." [Laughter 
and applause.] But those of you in Indiana who want to save these 
dunes for commercial purposes ought, I think, to see the educational 
principle involved here. Do you know, there is nothing more 
utilitarian for the human race than a safe and sane method of thought. 
And that safe and sane method of thinking is best developed by using 
concrete situations for the education of our 3''outh in college, high 
school, and elementary school. And it is on behalf of them that I 
argue for the saving of the dunes. There are so many educational 



32 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

purposes for which they should be saved, that one is tempted to 
proceed interminably; but I must restrict myself to this one phase. 
I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. I see that we have Prof. T. C. Chamberlain, 
of the University of Chicago, with us. We will hear a few words 
from Prof. Chamberlain in regard to the dunes, from the geologist's 
standpoint. [Applause.] 

Prof. T. C. Chamberlain. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen: 
To the geologist, perhaps, the most important public interest lies in 
convincing as many of our citizens as possible that this earth of ours, 
this planet, on whose existence and on whose activities we depend, 
is not a dead planet, passed on to us from the past, but is a living, 
active organism, constantly reshaping itself — no doubt within, cer- 
tainly without — selecting and assorting its material, and placing 
-that material in a form which shall subserve the well-being of the 
inhabitants that dwell upon it. These assorting, selecting, and 
rearranging processes are present everywhere on the face of the 
earth, and upon them depend the utilitarian interests, the intellectual 
interests, and the moral interests far beyond what we can readily 
appreciate. Our soils, concerning which in recent years we have 
become apprehensive, are not a fixed gift of nature, but they are 
being constantly created, and constantly removed; and our first 
interests, as dependent upon the production of our soils, is to know 
how they are produced, how they are removed, and what is the 
proper handling of the soils which shall give us their maximum 
values. And these maximum values do not lie in complete reten- 
tion; and they are constantly jeopardized by the too rapid removal 
of those products. This is but an illustration of our real interest in 
the values that the earth puts within our hands. One of the most 
important recent discoveries in mining circles lies in the recognition 
of the fact that our greatest utilities that come from within the earth 
are dependent upon the selective concentration that goes on, the 
secondary or recent concentration. Values that are distributed and 
diffused through the mass of the earth in such a way that they are 
of no value to us at the present time, are assembled by nature and 
put in forms that are subservient to our utilization. 

Now, this principle has a multitude of illustrations; and as far as 
the public is concerned, of course, its illustrations must be left to 
those who have time and the means of tracing out their details 
with the utmost resources of modern science. But it is important 
to the public to know these general facts, and know them in a realiz- 
ing sense, so that they may pass in judgment upon those things that 
are presented to them from various sources, that concern the well 
being of our whole race. The fundamental education of the people 
to some appreciation, at least, of these great facts, is of the highest 
degree of importance, not only to our utilitarian interests and to our 



PEOPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 33 

legislation, but to our personal education, as the last speaker has so 
well said, and to our moral education as well. Now, the dunes 
furnish one of the best bases for gathering this general impression 
that is presented by nature that there is. The dunes are themselves 
a beautiful expression of the selective and accumulative action of 
nature. The material that goes into the lake with every storm is 
exceedingly mixed material. The material that is washed from the 
banks of the lake is exceedingly mixed material. But the waves 
at once begin a selective process upon them. The dirty material, 
the earth and the clay, is washed out and deposited in the deeper 
and more quiet waters. The coarser material is left by this selective 
action along the shore, and then the waves wash that up and down 
and up and down, sometime in a zigzag course, if the direction of the 
wind is oblique, so that by a zigzag process this material goes up and 
down until it is thoroughly cleansed, thoroughly rounded, and at 
length in part is thrown up by the action of the waves and left to dry 
on the beach. Here is a selective action that illustrates one of the 
most common processes of geological history. 

The strata of earth are derived from mixed material in this way 
and have been so derived for millions of years in the past. But the 
dunes illustrate a cooperative action on the part of the wind. This 
washed, cleansed, rounded material is caught by the wind and drifted 
forward until it finds lodgment, and this lodgment illustrates the 
power of the wind, the turmoil to which the basal part of the 
atmosphere is subjected; and out of that come these beauties that 
have already been rehearsed before you. The windward side of the 
dunes presents a curve of intense beauty. No one can look steadily 
upon those curves and realize how they have originated without 
having his soul exalted by the realization of the work that nature 
does and the beauties that lie back of it. Then on the leeside there 
are other principles of lodgment which again have their beauties; 
and these contrasted forms present a combination which only the 
artist can fully appreciate, but which all the multitude may become 
familiar with, to a greater or less extent, to their pei*sonal gratification 
and to their spiritual exaltation. The only point that I wish to urge 
here, out of the many points that may be urged, is simply this: 
here on the borders of the lake are in process two conjoined opera- 
tions by nature, which are coordinated in producing a selection of 
material and an accumulation of one class of material in one place, 
and an accumulation of another class of material in another place, all 
subservient to the uses of mankind. That portion which is deposited 
under the lake is beyond our convenient reach, but that portion which 
is laid up by the winds over the banks is immediately accessible to 
ns; and besides presenting the various attractions that liave been 
presented and will be presented to you, at the same tijne illustrates 
activities and principles of action which give to the visitant there a 
95781—17 3 



34 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

modicum of actual attainment, of actual intellectual and spiritual 
exaltation as the result of his visit. And I have the impression that 
the greatest contribution to the happiness of our life hes in a com- 
bination of this kind, namely, recreation, physical exaltation, the 
breathing of the open air, and all that goes with that, to which is 
superadded some further contact with processes of nature, some 
further intimacy with those great forces that are preparing the 
earth for our utilization, and that are at the same time instructing 
us in the duties of the ways of creation. I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. It is good indeed to come back to Chicago, 
after the absence of a year or two, and find one of my good warm 
friends of the past 20 years holding the important position of president 
of the Association of Commerce. I am now going to turn for a mo- 
ment to another angle of this project and call on my friend, Mr. 
John W. O'Leary, president of the Association of Commerce, to say 
a word from the standpoint of the association. [Applause.] 

Mr. John W. O'Leary. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I 
have gathered from what has been said that the business interests 
are not supposed to have much thought of ideals and that we must 
look to those who are of the professions or who are naturally ideal- 
istic to forward a movement for any great project, such as the park 
that is now contemplated. My experience with the cold-blooded 
business man, as we call him, is that he is after all a rather warm- 
blooded fellow and has at heart fully as much the interests of the people 
as anybody in this good world of ours. I have the honor to rep- 
resent the Chicago Association of Commerce, an organization of 
approximately 4»,000 firms, corporations, and individuals, the asso- 
ciation having as its objective the extension of commerce and the 
betterment of our community socially, morally, and physically. 
We are interested in the proposed establishment of a national park 
in close proximity to Chicago. Our city has a population of 2,437,526; 
781,217 are of foreign birth; 912,701 are of foreign extraction, or a 
total of 1,693,918. This vast throng have made this their home 
in the short period of 80 years and it has been our problem to 
assimilate them. We are an industrial city and the great mass of 
our people are of the working class and of moderate means. Many 
of them have come to us from countries of Europe where considera- 
tions of education or sanitation are not given the importance which 
we attach to them. From this material a majority of our citizen- 
ship must be built and Chicago has been meeting the problem without 
sparing dollars. 

We have an investment in public parks and playgrounds for the 
improvement of health and morals and for recreation, representing 
to-day hundreds of millions of dollars, a system of parks, large and 
small, that is not surpassed in this country. We have provided fur- 
ther for the creation of a great outlying forest preserve for the benefit 



PROPOSED SAND DUXES NATIONAL PARK. 35 

of present and future generations. We are to-day spending millions 
of dollars in the development of our lake front, for recreation pier and 
for bathing beaches, and there are now pending further plans for the 
development of our lake frontage for the pleasure and health of the 
people. I do not touch upon expenditures for education, as this has 
no direct bearing on what we are to-day considering. I desire to 
demonstrate that Chicago does not come to the National Government 
without having already spent enormous sums herself for the welfare 
of her people. This teeming population, as I have said before, repre- 
sents people of small means. They have neither the time required 
nor the funds necessary to carry them to the magnificent domains of 
the national parks so generously provided by our National Govern- 
ment and which you, Mr. Secretary, have done so much to extend. 
The suggested dunes national park would be within their reach both 
in time and means. It is practically the center of population, and is 
therefore available to a larger number of the people of the United 
States than existing national reservations. 

In the political campaign just closing the great parties are united 
on one need — Americanization. We of Chicago have been impressed 
with the idea of forwarding such a movement. It appeals to us par- 
ticularly because of our large foreign population. What we have 
done for our citizens I have already told. But in all of this there is 
no contact or association with our National Government. One of the 
problems of Americanization is to bring to the people an understand- 
ing of their connections with our national affairs. This applies not 
only to the foreign born but to the American born. The establish- 
ment of a beautiful reserve by our Government, available to these 
citizens, will no doubt convey to them some thought of a fatherland 
interested in them and their welfare. It is our hope, Mr. Secretary, 
that action on this desirable project will be favorable and prompt. 
The rapidity of the advance of this city has destined it to be the center 
of the greatest industrial section of the country, and as the city ex- 
pands its industrial growth will absorb the available land and make 
the cost of reclaiming prohibitive. Chicago and the territory ad- 
joining contribute much to the National Treasury yearly. We ask 
little from it in return. We are proud that we stand on the credit 
side of the balance sheet in our relation to the national ])udget, and 
we hope it may always be so. 

We urge the establishment of the dunes national park for the up- 
building of our Americanism. We urge it as a suj^plement to our 
local efforts to provide health and recreation. We urge it in the in- 
terest of a fair distributi(m of our national expenditures for this most 
worthy purpose. We urge it for the preservation of one of Nature's 
beauty spots. We urge it, furthermore, in justice to the great central 
section of the country with its milUons of population, for which little. 



36 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

has been done and by which much is deserved. On behalf of the 
Chicago Association of Commerce, Mr. Secretary, I desire to advise 
that, following the hearing to-day, we will prepare a brief, which we 
trust we may submit at a later date. 

Secretary Mather. I will be very glad to have you do so. 

Mr. O'Leary. Thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. I think it is very significant to have an organi- 
zation like the Chicago Association of Commerce come out and take 
the stand it has on this question. It speaks very well for the interest 
that is being taken in this project. 

I see my old friend, Dr. Graham Taylor, in the audience. Now 
sometimes when we have gotten together over at the City Club, I have 
heard Dr. Taylor say something with regard to the building of a great 
industrial city not far from the dunes, and what it meant to have the 
requirements of factories cut off access to the lake from the popula- 
tion of that city. I would like to have him give us a word or two 
about what he thinks the. relation between the condition down there 
and the preservation of the dunes is. Dr. Taylor. [Applause.] 

Dr. Graham Taylor. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I am 
very glad to say a word for the crowd. The first thing that occurs 
to me is that this proposed national reservation will be nearest the 
largest number of people divorced from nature by city residence and 
city occupation that this continent is going to hold. I am not 
unmindful of the East, where I was born and brought up; but there 
can be no doubt that this section of the Middle West, within a quar- 
ter or half a century, if not before that, will be the most densely popu- 
lated industrial district on the American continent. Now, we must 
remember that no life can be normal that is divorced from nature. 
I often wonder what I can do for my neighbors on the West Side, in 
the tenement house and industrial district, close to the river, to give 
them a chance to get acquainted with God's green earth, of which 
some of them have actually never caught even a glimpse. You go 
through the streets of that district with some lilacs, for instance, in 
your hand in the spring, or some summer blossoms during the sum- 
mer, or some autumn leaves in the fall, and full grown men will 
accost you on the pavement and say, ^^For God's sake, give me a 
blossom; I have somebody sick at home." People will stand and 
watch you, also, not asking you to, share with them something of 
your larger acquaintance with nature. That situation of being 
divorced from God's green earth and God's open skies is abnormal. 
It gives one only a partial life. 

The warden of a prison in Canada said that one day a young 
prisoner who had been confined there for two or three years said to 
him, '^ Warden, may I ask you a question?" The warden replied, 
'^Yes." ''Well, are the buds bursting yet?" ''My God," said the 
warden, "I never thought of the damage we were doing an immortal 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 37 

man by shutting him away from nature so that he did not know 
whether spring had come;" and he said to the young prisoner, ^^ Yes; 
come out here." He took him right to the open door, and he said, 
''Go out and see for yourself." The young fellow quickened his 
pace, and went in a bee line faster and faster, until the warden said 
his heart was in his throat for fear the young fellow was going to 
escape; but suddenly he stooped down and picked something up, 
and came back to the warden with two little dandelion blossoms; and 
he said, ''I haven't seen a blossom in tjie years that I have been m 
here." And this incident moved that warden to have a farm colony 
established for prisoners who had committed misdemeanors, instead 
of treating those human beings even worse than we do beasts in a 
menagerie. 

Of couree, you may say that the residents of a great congested 
industrial district can get out and go into the open. Yes, but after 
a while, after they have stayed within the confines of a tenement 
house region, they somehow lose their impulse to go out. And I 
could pick you out people from my district who probably have not 
seen Lake Michigan in years. Indeed, we have taken young people 
to the lake shore who had never seen it, although they lived only a 
mile or so away. One of the boys whom we took to Indiana looked 
up into the sky, and said, ''Gee, they have sweU stars over here." 
He had never seen the stars except through the smoke of the canyons 
of Chicago. 

So it seems to me that this national park reservation that is pro- 
posed will be near this great shut-in or shut-out industrial popula- 
tion, which is bound to be more densely located here than anywhere 
else on the continent. Moreover, as has already been said by Mr. 
O'Leary, we have one of the most cosmopolitar^ populations on the 
face of the earth. We are attempting what no nation in Europe has 
ever attempted, and we are succeeding in doing what Europe has 
failed to do, and their awful failure is written in this war's welter of 
blood and tears. But still we are far from being one nationality. 
We have wakened up to the unpleasant fact that if we are not posi- 
tively divided, yet w^e are only negatively a unit; and I look upon 
this national park reservation as a great unifier of the diverse ele- 
ments of our population. I think it will give each citizen who visits 
these dunes a sense of proprietorship in tlie national assets. I really 
was thrilled when I went under that legend written over the entrance 
to Yellowstone Park for the first time, reading, "For the pleasure of 
the people." I felt that I was one of the people. It positively gave 
a new impetus to my own patriotism. 

And now these sand dunes are near enough by for a great many 
of these city toilers, not only in Chicago but in the other great inckis- 
trial centers that are ra])idly growing up — yes, and rapidly shutting 
out their populations from the lake shore — to let them see a little of 



38 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

the domain that is America. At Gary a population of 50,000 or 
more has grown up, and that population of 50,000, within three- 
quartets of a mile of Lake Michigan, must go 6 miles around one end, 
or 6 miles around the other way, to get by the fences and the barriers 
of the United States Steel Corporation. How long do you think a 
great cosmopolitan population can stand that sort of misappropria- 
tion — I will put it that way — of the great, common benefits of 
nature? Of course, there are business reasons for that, but then 
there are human reasons why there should be a nearer access to the 
only spot that is healthful, beautiful, and natural in that whole new 
development down there. We have not gotten into the game too 
late to attain to public ownership of the remaining stretch of sand 
dunes and their lake shore. 

We are talking a good deal nowadays of the kind of patriotism 
that we need; but, somehow or other, there is nothing that welds us 
together so much as joint ownership, the sharing of privileges to- 
gether, living a common life together. And that leads me to my 
last point. I have said that this part of the continent is bound to 
be the great industrial and manufacturing center. Well, with that 
development there will come an increasing monotony of life, an in- 
creasing stress and strain on nerve and mental stamina. I regard 
the investment of public money in the recreation development of the 
city of Chicago as absolutely the best investment of the taxpayers' 
money that has ever been made by any city, and I speak of it because 
of my sense of the tremendous importance of the labor problem. As 
I go on, I believe that the leisure problem is as big and complex and 
vital with regard to the Nation's welfare as the labor problem. 
[Applause.] Indeed, the solution of the leisure problem will do not 
a little toward being a solvent of the labor problem. Moreover, I 
speak not so much of the individual workman, but of the family 
life. Do you realize how few things there were before the movies 
came in that a whole family could enjoy together? A woman had 
her family, and she generally did not go anywhere, but just stayed 
home. Then the boy of the family went his way, and the girl w^ent 
her way; and while the family life was lived under the same roof, 
yet there were fewer and fewer things which were shared by every 
member of the whole family. 

Now it is the joy of one's heart to see how whole families enjoy 
these little patches of common Mother Earth which are left to the 
joint possession and the joint enjoyment of all of us. They are like 
oases in a wilderness that is great and terrible to family life. Now, 
we need a wider horizon. These little places we have reserved are 
all too small for the steady growth and the almost floodlike rush of 
the population of this great area. I was greatly impressed when I 
looked at Epping Forest outside of London, years ago. There they 
thought they had reserved a place far beyond the city limits, for the 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 39 

recreation, play, and pleasure of the people. But those to whose cus- 
tody it was committed thought that it was so far away that the city 
would never grow into it, and that they, without being observed, 
could appropriate it to their own possession. But after a while a 
British workman came along and exercised the ancient right of 
''lopping." He took an ax and he lopped off some of the branches 
of the trees, for which he was promptly arrested. Thereupon, Brit- 
ish-like, they gathered together and formed a defense association, 
and threw the matter into the courts, and threw the private owners 
out, and restored the public ownership to Epping Forest. And that 
is a great outlying playground now, to which the people surge, as 
the city limits are catching up rapidly with that great forest reserve. 

So I say, we must not be content with these intramural reserva- 
tions. We must get the outlying districts, the great outlying dis- 
tricts about us. We must remember that in this whole central part 
of the country we have no large public reservations such as they 
have in the farther West. Therefore, Mr. Secretary, I say that in 
promoting this project you, and the department that you represent, 
will certainly do your country a far-reaching benefit. You will give 
a new sense of proprietorship not only to the recent immigrants but 
to the children that are to the manor born; and by establishing this 
great, common playground of the people, this patch of Mother Earth, 
to which we all have common rights, you will make a center for the 
getting together and the unifying of the cosmopolitan people of the 
world, gathered together in this international citizenship, such as 
nothing else can accomplish. And I wish you Godspeed, from every 
point of view — economic, political, patriotic, moral, and religious — 
yes, fundamentally religious, for, after all, what is religion but rela- 
tionship, and relationship to earth as well as heaven? [Applause.] 

Secretary ^L\ther. When I was out in California last summer, 
attending to some of the problems of the national parks, I had the 
pleasure of a call from my friends, Mr. Julius Roscnwald and Mr. 
Lessing Rosenthal and their wives. Mr. Rosenwald had not seen 
me for some little time, and the first thing he said was, " Well, Mather, 
what are you doing now? What are you doing with the parks? 
Have you got anything special before you?" I said, ''There is an 
old abandoned road across the Yosemite National Park and the 
Sierra, which would, if improved, open up the whole of the beautiful 
upper mountain country. I can get it for a bargain, for about SIO,- 
000 or $15,000, and I have been trying to stir up the Calif ornians to 
do their share." Of course that was not intended as a ''touch'' in 
any way, but at any rate, after Mr. Rosen wald had looked the prop- 
osition all over, he said, " Well, that sounds good to me. Put me down 
for $1,000." You may be sure I did not lose any time in putting 
him down. Later on, when I gave him a luncheon at the University 
Club in San Francisco, and had him meet some of my old San Fran- 



40 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

Cisco friends — San Francisco was my boyhood town — I told my 
friends that they ought to be ashamed of themselves; that there was 
a man from Chicago who had given more toward this particular proj- 
ect than any Californian. Now, I am going to ask Mr. Rosenwald to 
say a word about these sand dunes. He has shown an interest in 
the Yosemite; perhaps he is also interested in the dunes. [Applause.] 

Mr. Julius Rosenwald. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I 
have come to say only a word or two, and it is a matter of regret to 
me that I have not the intimate acquaintance with the dunes that 
many of these gentlemen have who have spoken to 3^ou this morning, 
preceding myself. First of all, I want to pay my respects and express 
my gratitude to the Hon. Thomas Taggart, of Indiana [applause], 
for bringing this matter before Congress, before the Senate. If it 
-had not been for his activity, we probably would not have had this 
question up for many years to come. Secondly, I want to express 
my gratitude to our worthy fellow citizen, the Assistant Secretary 
of the Interior Department [applause], for all he has done in this 
matter. He has taken more personal interest in the national parks 
than all the assistant secretaries that preceded him. [Applause.] 
He has done more to bring the parks to the people than any secretary, 
and all secretaries together, preceding him. [Applause.] He has 
popularized the parks. 

Now, it is a great thing that we have secured Mr. Mather's interest 
in getting a national park where there are people. All of our national 
parks are where there are practically no people surrounding them. 
They are all in sparsely settled country, where people have to travel, 
in many cases, at least, thousands and thousands of miles to get to 
them. At any rate, the center of population is many, many miles from 
most of our national parks. Now, we are talking here about estab- 
lishing a park, under the control of the Government, right in the heart 
of a thickly populated district. And then to-day, great as the dunes 
are, the people of the country know practically nothing about them. 
When this dune region once is made a national park, it will be worth 
many times as much to this country as it is now, because then it 
will be brought prominently to the notice of the people; the fact 
of its existence here, of its easy accessibility, and, also, the fact that 
it is a wonderful part of the country for purposes of recreation and 
education. 

Now, Mrs. Rosenwald has had plans made for a house that we 
intend to build somewhere on the dunes. The plans are read}^, and, 
unless this park project interferes, we are going ahead with them. 
[Applause.] We and our children want to spend davs at a time on 
the dunes. This idea has only come to us within the last few years, 
when we have known anything about the dunes, or that they were 
worth seeins:. 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 41 

Olio of m}^ great regrets — and I was very glad to hear Prof. Cham- 
lain call it to your attention — is the lack of nature education that 
most cliildren have to-day. I have remarked many times that I 
think all our other education is secondar}^ to the love that we might 
instill in our children for the things that exist in nature, through 
which they would derive pleasure in life that the}^ would not find 
in the counting house, the mill, and the mine, the education for which 
is specialized, and largely used only for a particular purpose. 

"With regard to the dunes being a recreational resort, I might say 
that some of our own employees have spent their vacations on the 
dunes, living right out of doors, and sleeping on the sand. A member 
of one party told me he never thought it was possible that such 
enjoyment existed as they derived in being so close to nature as 
they were when they were on the sand dunes. 

In closing, Mr. Secretary, I desire to thank you especially for the 
interest that you are taking in this matter, and I hope that the real- 
ization of the project is not far distant. [Applause. 1 

Secretary Mather. We have several gentlemen here whose time 
is very limited, and who should have been hoard from earlier. There- 
fore, I will at this time call on Prof. RoUin D. Salisbury, of the Uni- 
versit}^ of Chicago, to say a few words to us. [Applause.] 

Prof. RoLLiN D. Salisbury. Mr. Secretary, ladies and gentlemen, I 
came into the room without any intention of speaking, but I am glad 
to respond; and I shall only detain you a moment. First of all, I 
want to emphasize what Mr. R-osenwald has just said about the work 
which Mr. Mather has done for the national parks. I myself have 
been in two of the national parks since he has been in charge of them, 
and I can testify, as Mr. Rosenwald did, to the fact that he has done 
more to open up those parks to the people, to make them accessible 
and attractive to the people, than anybody else before ever has. 
[Applause. 1 And I wish to add, sir, that in doing that you have, 
in my judgment, become one of the great educators of the United 
States. [Applause.] 

It is true that a large part of the dunes alread}" have disappeared, 
and more are going. I do not think we should stop their removal 
altogether, because the head of Lake Michigan is so advantageously 
situated for industrial development, that industries must have a 
foothold there; but every new industrial center that is established 
there is an added reason why we should save a large and representa- 
tive tract, which never can be despoiled. Not only the people* wlio 
are here now need it, but all those added centers of industry are going 
to need it very shortly; and all their descendants, as well as ours, 
will need it in the future. For tliat reason tlu* dunes ought to be 
saved. 



42 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

From the point of view of the University of Chicago, let me say 
just a word. This has been so serious a matter to the university 
that more than once the university has thought seriously of buying 
for itself, with a view to permanent preservation, a tract in the 
dune country. But it is obvious that any tract which one institu- 
tion or one individual might buy would not be large enough to be 
adequate for the people who should have the use of a dune tract for 
educational purposes. There are many institutions other than the 
university to be considered. As Mr. Caldwell has indicated, and as 
others have said, there is the whole community to be educated, while 
the university is but one small part. I refer to the university merely 
to show how an institution whose work is primarily educational 
looks upon the educational value of the dune tract. 

It would be difficult to find any other area of equal size which 
illustrates so many different things, whether they be in the line of 
geology, as Prof. Chamberlin has indicated, or whether they be along 
the lines of botany and zoology, or of geography, a subject which has 
to do primarily with the relations of life to its physical environment. 
Phases of all these subjects are admirably illustrated in the dunes. 
To let them be despoiled now would be to take away the oppor- 
tunity for study along these diverse lines from the 3,000,000 of 
people already centered about the head of Lake Michigan and from 
the other millions which are to come. Further, it should be noted 
that this is a very accessible region. There is no other equally 
instructive area so accessible to a large part of Chicago as that. It 
is not only accessible at certain times of the year, as Yellowstone and 
Glacier Parks, but it is accessible 12 months in the year. [Ap- 
plause..] It is almost as attractive in winter as in summer, and as 
attractive in spring as in the fall. One going in any season is sure 
to feel that that is the most attractive season. It is a fine place for 
intensive study, and a good deal of intensive study already has been 
done there. I should like to compare it with a great library. I 
hold that things of this sort are useful and important, just as really 
as libraries are. Furthermore, the dune tract is useful not merely 
to the people of Chicago. It is available to all the people of an 
area much larger than the immediate environs of Chicago. 

Dunes, as such, are not unique features. There are plenty of 
them; but dunes like these, with their wonderful flora and fauna, are 
rare; and dunes like these in immediate proximity to a great center 
of population, a center of population which is destined to become 
much greater, are far from common. It seems to me, therefore, that 
we of this city shall be negligent — it appears to me almost criminally 
negligent ^with reference to future generations if we do not do all 
that we can to secure the permanent preservation of a generous and 
well-selected tract for the use of ourselves and of the generations 
to come. [Applause.] 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 43 

Secretary Mather. Prof. Salisbury's point that the dunes are 
accessible at all times of the year is particularly good. That is one 
great trouble about most of our national parks; it is only a rela- 
tively short season that they are accessible to the people. I never 
had a more enjoyable time than when I went one year in the middle 
of the winter, in a snowstorm, down to the dunes and had a good 
square meal m one of those little cabins. 

Now we want a word from Prof. Henry C. Cowles, of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, who will discuss the sand dunes from the point of 
view of the botanist. [Applause.] 

Prof. Henry C. Cowles. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I 
certainly heartily second all that has been said in regard to Mr. 
Mather's very large part in making our national parks useful. I feel, 
however, that if we do not cease making parks outside of the periphery 
of our country, the name of the department may have to be changed 
from '' Department of the Interior" to ^'Department of the Exte- 
rior." [Laughter and applause.] Therefore I second very heartily 
the move toward the establishment of a national park in this groat 
Central West. For 20 years I have been studying the dunes more 
than anything else, more than everything else combined. In fact, 
that has been my chief reason for existence, perhaps, for those 20 
years. During those 20 years I have studied not only the dunes of 
Lake Michigan but nearly all the dunes of the world, having per- 
sonally visited most of them and read about the others. And so 
this meeting here today seems to me almost the culmination of a 
lifetime of scientific effort, though I hope that my lifetime is not 
coming to an end just now, because I want to enjoy this great na- 
tional park when it becomes such, together with all of the thousands 
and hundreds of thousands of people who are likely to go there 
when it is created into such a park. Three years ago I had the great 
privilege of conducting through our continent, or through our country, 
perhaps I had better say, a large number of the greatest scientists 
of Europe, the greatest botanists of Europe, men representing all 
the countries which are now at war with one another. 

As there was so much in our country to see in the brief time that 
we had to sec it in, I asked these people who had come here to indi- 
cate what they wanted to see in the United States in two months. 
They mentioned things, of course, that it would have taken dozens of 
months to witness, even briefly; but there were three or four things 
that all of them mentioned as higlily worth seeing, even in the briefest 
trip to the United States. One of those was the Grand Canyon of 
the Colorado; another was the Yosemite; another was Yellowstone 
Park; and the fourth was the Lake Michigan dunes. [Applause.] 
Those were the only four things that were mentioned by all of those 
European scientists, regardless of whatever else they wished to see. 
In other words, in Europe, among the scientific men, our Lake Michi- 



44 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

gan dunes are rated with the wonders of the West that already have 
been set aside, with the exception of the Grand Canyon, for national 
parks. Now, my studies for all these years have mostly been, as 
has been indicated, along the line of plant life, botany. Now, I am 
not going to read this manuscript to you of course; that would a be 
crime. But I am going to merely call your attention briefly to one or 
two of the things that have impressed me in those 20 years. The 
botanical features of the dunes may be considered under two heads; 
first, the dunes as a common meeting ground of trees and wild flowers 
from, all directions; and second, the dunes as a picturesque battle 
ground between plant life and the elements. Botanically the Indiana 
dunes are a marvelous cosmopolitan preserve, a veritable floral melt- 
ing pot. 

There are few places on our continent where so many species of 
plants are found in so small compass as within the area suggested for 
conservation. This is in part because of the wide diversity of con- 
ditions prevailing there. Within a stone's throw of almost any spot 
one may find plants of the desert and plants of rich woodlands, plants 
of the pine woods, and plants of swamps, plants of oak woods and 
plants of the prairies. Species of the most diverse natural regions 
are piled here together in such abundance as to make the region 
a natural botanical preserve, not only of the plants that are char- 
acteristic of northern Indiana, but also of the plants of remote 
outlying regions. Here one may find the prickly pear cactus of the 
southwestern desert hobnobbing with the bearberry of the arctic 
and alpine regions. The commonest pine of the dunes, the jack 
pine, is far out of its main range, reaching here its farthest south. 
One is almost startled at the number of plants of the far north, many 
of which, like the jack pine, are not found to the southward of our 
dunes. Among such plants of the Canadian forest and tundra are 
the twin flower, the glandular willow, the poverty grass, and the 
northern rose. Northern plants are particularly characteristic of 
the dune swamps, and embrace such interesting species as the larch, 
bunchberry, dwarf birch, sage willow, numerous orchids, cranberry, 
leather leaf , and many more. Many of these species are found nowhere 
for many miles outside of the dune region, so that the failure to con- 
serve the dunes would result in the extinction of this wonderful flora 
for all time. 

The picturing of the beauties of the dune wild flowers may perhaps 
belong to an artist rather than to a botanist, but I can not forbear 
noting that in the dunes, as nowhere else in our part of the world, is 
there a procession from April to October of beautiful flowers. Our 
woodlands in spring and our swamps and prairies in summer are 
favorite haunts for flower lovers, but the dunes are beautiful the 
season through. In early spring one finds in the dunes the trailing 
arbutus (found nowhere else in our region), the sand cherry, the bear- 



PKOPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 45 



berry and hepatica. In May there are splendid displays of the lupine, 
puccoon, phlox, trillium, and the ma:;nificent bird's-foot violet. 
Somewhat later come many of the orchids, among which may be 
noted four species of ladies' slipper, the roses, columbine, twin flower, 
spiderwort, rock rose, and coreopsis. In midsummer there occur a 
bewildermo; number of attractive flowers, as the hairbell, goat's rue, 
butterfly weed, flowering spurge, and the incomparable prickly pear 
cactus. In late summer one sees numerous kinds of golden rod and 
aster, and also sunflowers and yellow gerardias. Perhaps the cul- 
mination of this wonderful display comes in the autumn with the 
gentians, grass of parnassus, witch hazel, and various golden rods and 
asters. One should not neglect mentioning here the display of au- 
tumnal color, which nowhere else in this part of the country reaches 
the magnificence seen in the dunes. The sour gum, sassafras, sumac, 
oak, red maple, and many vines and shrubs contribute to the fas- 
cinating blaze of color. 

The struggle for existence always interests, because our life is such 
a struggle. Nowhere perhaps in the entire world of plants does 
the struggle for life take on such dramatic and spectacular phases as 
in the dunes. A dune in the early days of its career is a moving 
landscape, a place that is never twice alike; it is a body of sand 
which under the influence of wind moves mdifferently over swamp 
or town or forest. Perhaps nothing in all nature except a volcano 
with its lava flow is to be compared with such a moving dune as is 
to be seen at Dune Park, Tremont, or Furnessville, in the Indiana 
dunes. In my 20 years of study of the Indiana dunes I have many 
times watched the destruction of forests by sand burial. But the 
plants do not yield supinely. Many species, such as the oaks and 
pines, give up very quickly, but others, such as the cottonwood, 
various willows, wild grape, and dogwood, display an astonishing 
resistance, growing up and up as the sand advances over them, and 
often succeeding in keeping pace with the advance of the sand. The 
power to respond in such a way depends upon the possession of a 
capacity for the rapid extension of stems and roots; in such plants 
new roots develop freely from the buried stems. Even such a lowly 
plant as the common horsetail can extend its stems sufficiently fast 
to keep above a rapidly advancing dune. Some species can even 
start on a moving sand dune and flourish where all life conditions 
seem impossible. The average visitor to a moving dune would say 
that such a place is bare of life; not so a botanist, who finds small 
and scattering plants in almost every situation. To almost every 
condition, no matter how severe, some plants are found adapted. 

Now, in closing, I believe that there is one particular reason why, 
as a student of the dunes for 20 years, and a student during that 
time of dunes in all parts of the world, I can make a special plea for 
the preservation of these particular dunes as a national park. There 



46 PROPOSED SAN^D DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

is only one Yellowstone Park in this or any other country, and it we 
have well conserved. There is only one such Crater Lake as we 
have set aside. There is only one such place as the Mesa Verde, 
which has been set aside, and there is only one such canyon as that 
of the Colorado, which is likely to be made a national park. It is 
well known that there are many dunes in the world, and many 
Americans, even, who know nothing of the marvelous dunes of Lake 
Michigan, have heard about the relatively insignificant dunes of 
Germany, France, and Belgium, or those of our own Cape Cod or 
Cape Henry. It is not so well known as it should be that the dunes 
of Lake Michigan are much the grandest in the entire world. Not 
necessarily the highest, though some of them reach up 400 feet and 
more above the lake, but more than any other anywhere, our dunes 
show magnificent and contrasting types of plant life, everything 
from the bare dunes to magnificent primeval forests. No other 
dunes than ours show such bewildering displays of dune movement 
and struggle for existence, such labyrinths of motion, form, and life ; 
just because its uniqueness preserved the Yellowstone — there are no 
such geysers elsewhere, so should their uniqueness preserve our 
dunes, for they are without a parallel. I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. I see that we have with us this morning one 
of Chicago's prominent citizens, who has always taken an interest in 
such movements as we are discussing to-day. May we have a word 
from Mr. Laverne Noyes at this time ? 

Mr. Laverne Noyes. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I 
wish to ask the secretary to push forward with all speed to protect 
these sand dunes from a new danger that has been announced to-day — ■ 
Mr. Rosenwald's proposition to build a house down there. [Laughter.] 
I am especially interested in seeing the dunes preserved as a national 
park because of the better expression of certain operations of nature 
in the sand dunes than in any of the other great tracts that we have 
preserved. The work of constructing and reconstructing the sand 
dunes is going on rapidly all the while, and it is going on in such a 
way that we can see what is done and how it is done. But to a cer- 
tain extent the dunes defend themselves. If people go across them, 
trying to make paths where there was none before, the paths do not 
last; and when one comes again to a certain place he has to work 
his way through just as he did formerly. I desire especially to see 
the dunes preserved because of their great educational value. The 
making of these dunes into a national park will afford a place for 
rest and recreation, not only to the people of Chicago, but to the 
people of the vastly greater territory of which the proposed park is 
the center. 

We of the Chicago Academy of Sciences are very desirous of having 
the sand dunes preserved as a national park, as we believe them to 
be of the greatest interest, not only to all students of natural science, 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 47 

but also to casual observers of nature's beauty. As evidence of our 
interest we have undertaken to bring these beautiful views within 
reach of many who can not visit them by an immense and wonder- 
fully realistic representation of the region surrounding Chicago, 
starting with the sand dunes, extending west through the marshes, 
rivers, and lakes, north through the great natural forests, east to the 
bluffs of the north shore, and thence to the lake again. 

This exhibit will show not only the beauties of the landscape 
but the animals and birds of the region in their natural habitats 
and will have a great influence in interesting students of nature 
in the sand dunes which it is now asked be preserved. The large 
amount of money that is to be spent to make this display gives 
evidence of the interest which the Chicago Academy of Sciences 
beheves the people of Chicago and vicinity have in the sand dunes 
and the other interesting spots of nature in contiguous proximity 
to these dunes. 

Secretary Mather. We are going to adjourn at 1 o'clock and 
we will reconvene at 2.30. This afternoon you will have the privi- 
lege of hearing quite a number of speakers. Now, before we adjourn 
I want to have a poem on the dunes read. This little note has been 
handed up to me: ''One of our most devoted lovers of nature and 
the beauty of the wilderness, Mr. George E. Bowen, a native of 
Chicago, who long ago discovered and sung the wonder and charm 
of the dunes, has set forth the unexpressed feeling of all friends 
of the dunes in some verses, which, with your approval, I desire to 
offer to-day as a tribute and a memorial." This poem will be read 
by Miss Minnie Moody. [Applause.] 

^liss Minnie Moody read the following poem: 

SONG O'tHE dunes. 

Sandland at twilight, 

All hushed in brooding gray — 
A place to find your heart again 

And cast your cares away. 
Duneland at sunrise — 

Life's glory risen new, 
The arms of freedom flinging wide 

The gates your dreams saw thro'. 

Sandland in starlight — 

The night-song's voice is dear, 
And folds the peace you thought of God 

\^Tiere held your heart its fear. 
Duneland at noontime — 

AMiat sorry stuff is gold, 
That royal pride and miser greed 

In foolish passion hold. 



48 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

Sandland in shadow — 

Or shining in the sun — 
WTiat care you for the fame of men 

Or what their wars have won? 
For Duneland is dearest 

Because no place is there 
For echoes of the battle field 

Or scars its victims wear. 

Give me for solace 

The shelter of the dunes — 
The songs that died in city streets 

Again are laughing tunes. 
My dreams of mighty temples 

And victories of trade — 
^.h.\ Foolish dreams, for of the truth 

Is Duneland wonder made. 

I may go back to trading, 

To kingcraft, law, or art — 
But here, beside this castled strand, 

I leave my honest heart. 
I need it not where commerce grinds 

The souls of men to dust — 
So, leave it where there is no fear, 

To sing the songs it must. 
[Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. There are just a few moments left in which 
to hear from another representative of the University of Chicago 
whom I see in the audience — Prof. Zonia Baber. [Applause.] 

Prof. ZoNiA Baber. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I think 
there is no place in the world that gives me the same emotional j 
reaction as the dunes. I was taken there first as a student 30 years 
ago, and I have been going there ever since from one to five times 
a year with classes. It is indeed a matter of no small moment, as 
has been repeatedly said here — the preservation of the dunes. I 
should like to stress the points that have been made from the edu- 
cational standpoint. With regard to educating children, we some- 
times think that the geology, of which Prof. Chamberlain spoke so 
interestingly, is a subject in which only grown people are interested. 
I have taken children and been with classes there from the kinder- 
garten on through to graduate students of college and found all 
interested in this wonderful region. During this last year a second- 
grade teacher with a class of 7-year-old children was there, and the 
children were perfectly delighted with the great piles of sand. They 
said : " Where did all this sand come from ? " One child said : " Whv, 
don't you see? The waves are bringing it up there on the shore." 
Then the teacher said : " But how do the waves get it ? " The children 
thought a little while and then said: ^' Why, God did it." The teacher 
said: '^Yes, of course, but how did God do it? How did God bring 
it here?" ''Oh," one child said, ''God did it with His magic." Now 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PABK. 49 

that explanation, that God did it with His magic, has been in the 
past the interpretation of scenic beauty. The work that has been 
spoken of, that Mr. Mather has been doing — leading people to see the 
beauties about them — I think is one of the great things to which we 
are coming, although we have not yet arrived. Most people even 
yet are as children in school, only they are big children. 

Prof. Chamberlain, Prof. Salisbury, Prof. Cowles, and these other 
people who are leaders in their lines of teaching people to read the 
book of nature, and in their love of nature, are all ahead of their 
time. Most people only see things that they have a capacity for 
seeing. I was going through the canyon of the Grand River in 
Colorado for the first time, and being thrilled, as everybody mast be 
who goes through there, and I saw a woman sitting near me reading 
a novel. I thought she did not know where we were, and so I 
attracted her attention to the beauties of the place. She looked up 
and said, "Oh, it is only rock." [Laughter.] Now, that was true. 
It was only rock. You know, 

A primrose by a river's brim 
A yellow primrose was to him, 
And it was nothing more. 

We must begin with the children, and teach them to read nature 
just as we teach them to read books; and it is much more difficult to 
read nature than it is to read books. The A B C's of nature are not so 
many nor so clear as those in printed books. Most of us do not know 
the A B C's of nature, and we pass over them unseeing. But if we 
can read the book of nature, there is no place that is uninteresting. 
In Australia two years ago I indicated that I wanted to go back into 
the interior of the country. They said, "Wliat in the world do you 
want to go there for? Those back blocks are nothing but desert. 
What do you want to go into the desert for?" AU ])laces are inter- 
esting to one who can read their story. The book of nature is more 
interesting and more thrilling than any novel we can read. And the 
dunes represent one of the most dramatic chapters of the book of 
nature that we have — the influence of the wind. Most of us do not 
learn the whole alphabet of nature; we learn only a few of the capital 
letters; and the dunes are the capital letters of the story of the wind 
and its influence. To permit that wonderful beauty spot of nature 
to be done away with would be a crime for which an adequate pun- 
ishment could hardly be devised. I can truthfullv sav that I should 
like to believe in the old orthodox Hades for the people who will 
aot save the dunes now^ for the people who are to come. I thank 
v'ou. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. There is no question, as Miss Baber says, that 
2^etting back to nature and studying nature from her own standpoint, 
las most wonderful educational possibilities. Before we adjourn I 
' 95781—17 4 



50 PROPOSED sa:n"d duxes national paek. 

want to mention a demonstration in the ''Book of Nature" which, 
among hundreds of others seen and studied during my travels of the 
past summer, stands out as most remarkable. I was on a trip with 
a pack outfit on the John Muir Trail in the high Sierra, a trip which 
was the most marvelous experience of my life. The trail begins in 
the famous Yosemite Valley and ends on the summit of Mount 
Whitney, some 200 miles south. We did not continue on the trail to 
the summit of Mount Whitney, but turned southwest, after traversing 
the greater part of its length, and concluded our journey in the glori- 
ous Sequoia National Park. We crossed scores of mighty divides, at 
altitudes of 10,000 and 12,000 feet, far above timber line and often 
in the midst of everlasting snows, and dropped down from them into 
valleys and gorges, many of which equaled the beautiful Yosemite, 
and one of which probably surpassed it. After crossing one of these 
alpine divides, we saw near at hand a great extinct volcano crater, 
which had been split in half, just as if smitten with a giant keen- 
edged cleaver. The whole subterranean mechanism of the crater 
was exposed to our gaze, and there we saw even the tube through 
which the lava had welled up. The other half of the old volcano had 
fallen into the canyon below. That was a marvelous example of the 
operations of nature; and I hope that some day many of you will 
have an opportunity to see that wonderful sight. 

The hearing will now stand adjourned until 2.30 this afternoon. 
After the recess we will resume our discussion in this room. 

(Thereupon a recess was taken until 2.30 o'clock p. m. of said date.) 



Afternoon Session, October 30, 1916. 

Secretary Mather. We will continue the hearing on the project 
to establish the sand dunes national park. Prof. Millspaugh was not 
here when I reached his name before the recess, but he has returned, 
and I am going to call on him now to speak on behalf of the Wild 
Flower Preservation Society of America. Prof. Millspaugh is the 
president of the society. 

Prof. C. F. Millspaugh. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I 
appear before you as president of the Wild Flower Preservation So- 
ciety of America, a society that has come into existence through the 
teachings of European societies of like purpose. The preservation 
of wild flowers may seem a small matter to you for doubtless you do 
not appreciate the fact that, when you are traveling in Switzerland, 
you are enjoying the beauties there as the result of the existence and 
work of the Wild Flower Preservation Society of Switzerland. Had 
it not been for the efforts of that society wild flowers would not have 
beautified your pathway — there would have been absolutely no Edel- 
weis to gladden your eye. With reference to this proposed dune park 
reservation, the matter appears to us of even greater weight than the 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 51 

preservation of any other natural beauty spot within the reach of 
our people. The need is national, not local. While the Wild Flower 
Preservation Society has a great, and very deep, interest in the pres- 
ervation of the dunes, their interest is as nothing compared with that 
of scientists throughout the country, in fact throughout the world. 
There is not a scientific investigator in geography, in geology, or in 
botany anywhere, but has his heart set upon the possibility of some 
day being able to visit this wonderful dune region. He knows that 
investigation there would not only increase his knowledge of, but also 
his efficiency in, his particular branch of science. 

I class the dune region of Lake Michigan with the Yellowstone 
National Park; with the Big-Tree Reservation; with the grand 
Canyon of Arizona, as one of the world's wonders. It may be that 
Indiana does not appreciate the dune region in this light — that the 
dunes would attract just as those wonders attract. You have had 
able speakers tliis morning who have brought before you the aesthetic 
and cultural aspects of the dune region, also the scientific side in its 
local bearing. I wish to emphasize the national and international 
value of the region to scientific workers. I would not plead that ihe 
dunes be preserved for Chicago or for Indiana, but for posterity. 

The great objection to preserving this region as a park comes from 
commercial interests — ephemeral interests. Do you remember the 
great figlit that had to be fought to save the big trees of California? 
'What was the opposing interest? The manufacture of cheap cigar 
boxes, and of shingles. And those great trees had descended to us 
from prehistoric times, and would, without doubt, continue to exist 
for many centuries to come, while cigar boxes and shingles — ephem- 
eral both! The sacrifice of the dunes is going on to-day with amaz- 
ing rapidity. Why ? Because the sand is easily and cheaply handled 
for filling purposes. There is plenty of other sand near by for the 
same purpose. But no! It would cost a few pennies more a ton to 
handle that because ic is not all heaped up, clean and dry, ready to 
pour into cars almost automatically. Just a little saving for tlie 
present moment without thought of or care for the future. Such lias 
been the history of all the destruction that has gone on, in the name 
3f commerce, throughout the civilized world, in its pioneer days. We 
are developing with astounding rapidity, but we must stop to think 
)nce in a while, stop and think of the waste we are engendering in our 
laste; stop and think of the millions of peo])le who arc to follow us 
vvho should have just as much right to enjoy life as we have. So 
^reat had the early people of Italy, Spain, and France devastated 
-heir countries that where mantling forests once covered the land the 
)eople are now mostly compelled to resort to the use of wisps of (hy 
•;rass, or handfuls of twigs, to cook their food. They might have an 
ibundance of fuel if their projenitors had only preserved a little out 
•f their wasted abundance. Shall we destroy the resources of our 



52 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

country and reduce our posterity to the mean point of mere existence 
in order that we may enjoy affluence ? Let us try, with every means 
in our power — not only in this instance but in other instances that 
arise — to help those who are to come after us, help to give the dunes 
to our children, and to our children's children, that they may have the 
opportunity to enjoy some of the soul-uplifting beauties with w^hich 
we are so abundantly surrounded. We are responsible for their com- 
ing on earth. Shall we rob that earth and leave but a desert. 
[Applause.] 

Secretary Mather: I can appreciate what Prof. Millspaugh has 
said with reference to the preservation of timber, because I have been 
particularly interested in the preservation of trees along the ap- 
proaches to various western national parks. At the present time we 
are trying to devise some plan which, w^hen consummated, will insure 
the safeguarding of the great Douglas firs along the road betw^een the 
city of Tacoma and Mount Rainier National Park. Also, we are mak- 
ing every effort to provide for the preservation of the wonderful sugar 
pines along certain roads leading to Yosemite National Park and 
through patented holdings within the boundaries of the park itself. 
All of these fine stands of timber shall be preserved in their glorious 
beauty. If any of them are destroyed there will be hideous waste 
instead of splendid sylvan scenery to greet the national park visitor. 

I heard only just the other day from Mrs. Harriet Adams, a promi- 
nent literary woman, who has just returned from Europe, where she 
has been right at the first line trenches, the story of the loss of timber 
in France today. The requirements of timber for the trenches are so 
great that they are even cutting down part of that glorious forest of 
Fontainbleu to provide wood, because they have no other source from 
which to draw. They are stripping the forests of France even in 
the back country, far away from the firing line. That is one of the 
terrible effects of the war which perhaps we lose sight of now", but 
which the next generation certainly will feel keenly. 

Now I desire to call on Lorado Taft, the sculptor, who is here. We 
would like to have a few words from him in regard to this proposition. 
[Applause.] 

Mr. LoRADO Taft: Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I regret 
that I was not here this morning, for I may merely repeat what has 
been said before, but I wish to put myself on record in this connection. 

One thought that comes to me is that of individuality in cities and 
communities — of making the most of the treasure wdiich is our own. 
When Ferrero, the great Italian historian, visited America, he was 
often asked what he thought of our country. In reply, he made the 
observation that the people here were delightful, but he found our 
cities ''monotonous." I can quite imagine his feelings, or the im- 
pression of any Italian accustomed to the hill towns of Italy, with 
all the varying personalities and physiognomies of those cities, devel- 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 53 

oped through centuries of isolation — and then coming to America, 
where everything has been made in the same mold, where our means 
of transportation are so generous and elaborate that a pattern of 
galvanized-iron cornice, for instance, can flood the market at any 
time from one ocean to the other. Any one thing which is found 
to be cheaper than any other is eagerly sought for throughout this 
vast territory. The result is that our cities are so much alike that 
a man would hardly know in what place he had landed when he 
opened his eyes in the morning. It might be Chicago, Detroit, or 
San Francisco as far as he could tell from the general physiognomy 
of the place. Not only is this the case, but we proceed as fast as pos- 
sible to obliterate everything which is distinctive and significant. 

I shall never forget my impression of Seattle, that magnificent 
city which seemed to me destined to become as beautiful as the 
panoramic region of Naples. I had noticed certain of the heights 
there within the city, and I was particularly impressed by a hotel 
set away up on a hill, very much like the Villa Aurora in Rome. 
''Why, if our people could have that in Chicago, they would be 
delighted; they would love to build a small mountain there." "Oh," 
replied the man I addressed, 'Sve are going to have all that down in a 
few weeks now. It is going to be reduced to the street level." I 
remember being in Sioux City and wandering with a friend there we 
had a drive out into the country. There I saw a series of notches 
in the hills which looked to me like the embrasures of a fortress, 
places where gigantic cannon might stand. I said, "What does that 
mean?" He said, "Oh, that is a relic of boom times, when we were 
putting the roads straight through the hiUs out here; but the town 
never came." Fortunately now and then there is some one who has 
seen a vision of something else, like our friend Kessler, of Kansas 
City, who realized that the thing to do in Kansas City was to make 
that place distinctive. He took that steep hillside above the old 
Union Depot, a climb which used to fill us with terrors and has made 
of it something so lovely, so characteristic of the place, that it is a 
delight to behold. It could not be duplicated here; there is no 
possibility of it. There is no otlier city in the Central West that I 
know of which could have done it. Out of that (Hsgraceful region, 
once so full of darkies' shacks and tin cans, a shame and a disgrace 
to the community which it heralded, he has made a place of distinc- 
tion and beauty, a matter of pride to the whole city. 

A while ago I was visiting in an eastern ar; gallery, and stopped 
before a marine painting. I was looking upon it wiih iuicrest when 
some one remarked, ''That must make you feel at home, Mr. Tafi." 
I said, ''At home? Why, 1 live in the West, a iliousand miles from 
the ocean." "I know," he said, "but you have tlu* lake." "Yes," 
[ said, " that is so; I remember Lake Michigan vaguely." [Laugli- 
ter and applause.] Of course, I had iioticed Lake Michigan. Tliat 



54 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

incident gave me a new thought, however. I have come to town 
occasionally on the Illinois Central, as a great many of us do. This 
last summer we have begun to discover Lake Michigan again, and 
begun to realize its beauty. But hitherto we have persistently 
turned our backs upon our greatest asset. Now, in art we think of 
personality as the most important of all things. Oh, how we seek 
for it in the work of an artist — the painter, the sculptor. It is the 
one thing. Good training we take as a matter of course. A man 
must prove his skill; he must know how to do this, that, or the other 
thing reasonably well; but after that, the prime essential quality, 
the thing that gives light and vividness and life, is personalit3\ 
And, as I say, we have all blindly, stupidly, attempted to wipe it 
out of this city of ours, which we all really love so much. It is piti- 
ful to think how we have turned our backs upon our glorious lake. 
The North Shore Drive shuts all its doors in summer. Of course 
this is necessary in their station in society; the front doors must all 
be barricaded during the summer. But worse than chat, we have 
barricaded the lake all along the South Side. Just a few of us 
who buy tickets on the Illinois Central ever get more than a glimpse 
of it. But we are coming again to realize its beauty and its refresh- 
ing charm. 

Now, there are two great beauties of this region, two things which 
are distinctive. One is the lake, and the other is its product, the 
dunes. When we allow the dunes to be wiped out for a mere matter 
of ''filling," we are simply robbing ourselves of a rich heritage from 
the past, and repeating a tragedy that has often occurred before. 
We look back, we students of the history of sculpture, and find that 
the seven wonders of the world were largely swept aside for ''fiUing" ; 
that the glories of Pergamon and the Mausoleum, that splendid 
monument at Halicarnassus, and those other great things which the 
old races looked upon as the greatest achievements of men, were 
destroyed, not by barbarians, but by our early Christian ancestors, 
for the making of lime. The Colosseum was well nigh obliterated 
by the holy fathers in the building of their medieval palaces. To-day 
we shudder at the destruction of a cathedral at Rheims, or the loss 
of a beautiful picture like that Tiepolo in Venice. We artists thmk 
that these are losses that are almost worse than the destruction of 
hundreds of thousands of men, and they are, because they are the 
fruits of the lives of hundreds of thousands of men — they are the sum 
total of those lives; the heritage which they have left behind. The 
only excuse we have for living is the message that we may leave 
to, the generations to come. I agree heartily with Mr. Millspaugh 
when he says that we owe much to the next generation. If art 
stands for anything, or if beauty stands for anything, it is because 
it binds generations of men together. The man who folds his arms 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 55 

and stands alone might be an animal merely. His is the life of an 
animal. But art lifts us above that plane, and extends forth a hand 
of welcome to the future. 

And so, my friends, I am very happy and proud to be here and to 
be recorded in this matter as having a word to say for the preserva- 
tion of this very beautiful spot which so appeals to the imagination. 
Its vision of vast open spaces, its billows of sand and their silent 
sentinels; the gestures of its weird trees silhouetted in the twilight — 
all conspire to make of it an enchanted land. By all means, let us 
spare no effort to conserve this wonderful place for ourselves and 
for the generations to follow us. I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. I see yonder one of my fellow members in 
the old California Society of Illinois, but I think he is going to say 
a word to us to-day in his capacity as vice president of the Indiana 
State Society. I refer to Mr. Will J. Davis. If he will speak a 
word to us from the standpoint of the Indiana Society, we will be 
very glad to hear from him. 

Mr. Will J. Davis. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I can 
not say very much, but I desire to assure you all that the Indiana 
Society is very deeply interested in this Indiana dune proposition. 
Personally, I have been familiar with the dunes ever since I could 
walk. My father built the Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana 
Railway into Chicago in the early fifties; and when I was a little 
chap, he used to bring me in with him once in a while on that railroad, 
running all around those hiUs. It ran around them because they 
did not have money enough to dig through them. I have been 
traversing that country between Chicago and my old home, Elkhart, 
Ind., ever since I have any recollection; and I have seen it grow to 
be more and more attractive, more and more alluring. I hope that 
this movement to make a national park of the dunes will succeed, and 
particularly for this reason: We all know^ what a very, very smaU 
percentage of Chicagoans can afford a trip, particularly if tlioy take 
their families with them to the Yosemito, or the Koyal Gorge, or any 
of the national parks of the Pacific coast. It costs money to do that, 
and plenty of it. But here, with all the means of railwa}^ communi- 
cation between Chicago and the dunes, to say nothing of the inter- 
urban lines, almost any man in Chicago can take liis wife and children 
upon a Sunday morning, and go out and spend the day among the 
dunes. There he can bring them riglit into contact with nature; 
and I want to tell you to-day, at 72 years of age, that nature has 
done a wonderful lot for me. As soon as I had money enough, I 
went off and bought a place in the country, and tlie fresh air, and 
the good food, and the roaming about through the woods and the 
vales has preserved to me my physical strength and my general 
health. If it has done that for me, it can do it for you, or any one. 



56 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

I desire to congratulate Mr. Mather for the work he is doing. I 
believe he is deeply interested in Chicago, and Chicago's welfare. 

Indiana, you know, is the center of population of the United 
States; that is, the center of population of the United States is in 
Indiana, and that center of population lies only a few miles from this 
proposed park. So let us put forth every effort that we can toward 
the consummation of this scheme, and bring it about. Thank you, 
Mr. Secretary, and ladies and gertlemn. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. One of the organizations that has been most 
interested in the sand dunes has been the Prairie Club, an organi- 
zation with which you are all familiar. Mr. T. W. Allinson, is the 
official spokesman of the Prairie Club, and we will be very glad 
to hear from him now. [Applause,] 

Mr. T. W. Allinson. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen. The 
great and increasing need of recreation on the part of the American 
people has come to be a matter of common knowledge. This recog- 
nition is no longer confined to a few people, a few associations, a 
few servitors of art, science and literature, who are interested in 
this great proposition. Out of door activity is not simply the fad 
of a relatively small group of enthusiasts, but has become a necessity 
to us all. As John Ruskin said, ''There is no wealth but life." The 
greatest asset of the American people does not lie in its power to 
create great cities, or in the possession of a wonderful soil, of great 
mineral wealth, timber wealth, or what not; but it is the possession 
of a great manhood, and in this great manhood the greatest possible 
advantage that we can confer upon our communit}^, and leave to 
our succeeding generations, is the conservation of the natural re- 
sources which are within our present reach. Already, as you have 
heard to-day, the sand dunes have been despoiled, almost to the 
point of destruction. I speak to you to-day not merely for the 
Prairie Club, but from the standpoint of a social worker whose life 
is placed among the people who have, as was said this morning, so 
little chance to come in contact with nature as she really is. T\Tien 
you think of the foreign people who come from countries where 
natural conservation has been a part of the law for many genera- 
tions — when you think of them, I say, coming from such countries to 
this country, and going into our modern cities, it is just as if they 
were put into vast prisons. 

I never will forget an experience of mine when I took a couple of 
Lithuanians out with me to the dunes last spring to do a little work 
for me. They were two men who had not had very much success in 
this worldly life, and they had both been ill; and I thought that a 
few days out among the dunes, where they both could do a little 
work, would do them both a world of good, and at the same time be 
of advantage in the way of a creation of a summer home for sick 
children which I was seeking to erect there. The first thing one of 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 57 

those men did when we landed off the train was to drop his tools, 
stretch open his arms, look around and up to heaven, take a deep 
breath, and say, ''Just like Lithuania." [Laughter and applause.] 
Half an hour later, when we reached the spot where our labor was 
to begin, the first thing I thought I would do was to take them into 
the lake and give them a swim. One of them said to me, ''This is 
the first swim I have had in seven years." I said, ''How long have 
you been in America ?" "Seven yeai's." "How often have you seen 
the lake?" "Just once before, when we came in over the Illinois 
Central." Just think of what that means. When we say, as we do 
continually, that it is our province to assimilate the immigrants and 
make them a part of us, make them good Americans, we must not 
forget the tremendous importance of recreation, which is as much a 
part of a natural life as anything else. Right along with their food, 
shelter, and clothing comes that deep need for recreation, and recrea- 
tion they must have. We have seen the rapid development in our 
cities and in our country towns of commercialized recreation; and 
the great pity of it is that it is the form which is most generally fol- 
lowed and the form which is most generally pursued by the great 
mass of our people. We go to see great spectacles of force and skill 
where 20 or 30 men compete, and all the exercise we get out of it and 
all the recreation we get out of it is in the exercise of our lungs, and 
that is sometimes bad form, even. 

But why do we want these particular dunes ? As Mr. Davis has 
said, and said so truly, it is not only because they are a valuable pos- 
session in themselves, not only because they are a benefit to us and 
our community, but because they are also of immense benefit to the 
future. In Indiana is the center of population of the United States. 
Thirty years ago, when I passed through, a mere lad, to come to 
Chicago, I saw the great sand hill at Michigan City. You know what 
it was then. But they said, "We are going to destroy that sand hill 
and make use of it in a more utilitarian fashion." They did so. At 
that time I said, "What are those sand hills?" They said, "They 
are nothino; but barren wastes." And for a matter of 10 or 15 vears, 
as I passed through, I saw nothing but barren wastes from the car 
windows, until one day by chance I happened to have a little time 
to spare, and, not feeling very well, I went down to those dunes, just 
to see what they were. I had scarcely gotten among them when, 
like Balboa of old, I felt as if a new world had sprung up before me, 
something of which I had never dreamed. To be sure, the scientists, 
the historians, the cultured among us knew of its existence, but the 
great mass of ordinary people knew nothing wliatever about it. 
Now, it is the education of the common people that we are chiefly 
concerned with, bringing before them the wonderful p()ssi})ilities of 
benefit to them that lie in this wonderful beauty spot just at our 
doors. You have heard from the representatives of many organiza- 



58 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

tions who are working along this Hne, perhaps 10 or 20 of them. 
They but voice a common aspiration, which is becoming increasingly 
and enormously developed. 

The president of the Lake Shore & South Bend Railroad was 
expected to be here to-day. I asked him to come so that he could 
present figures showing the interest in the dunes. He reported that 
his road had no records by which they could tell how large the travel 
had been, but he said that within the last two years the attendance 
at the dunes had increased enormously. As far as the club which I 
represent, the Prairie Club, is concerned, we have some figures. 
There were round-trip tickets purchased from the treasurer of the 
club of some 2,176 persons and also to the extent of upward of 4,300 
of those who attended the excursions during the past year. Mul- 
tiply that by the other societies and the other individuals who did 
not participate in those particular excursions, and see what the num- 
ber is. We have our parks in Chicago, probably the best in the 
world ; but they can not fully meet the needs of a great city like this 
and its suburbs. Humanity yearns to get away from vitiated air, 
from circumscribed paths and formal gardens; instinctively seeking 
the wide expanses, to refresh the eyes, to breathe pure air into the 
lungs, to test disused muscles and restore jaded muscles. Think also 
of the people who do not live in cities, but who live in small towns, 
and what they get in the way of recreation. Do not suppose for one 
moment that the people living in towns outside of this great city do 
not need this just as much as the people of Chicago? They need it 
even more, because they have not the urban facilities, such as play- 
grounds and recreational centers, that we have. They need it even 
more than we; and if they need it now, how will they need it in 30 
years or more ? If, in the time since I first came here, this popula- 
tion has increased from one and a half million to practically five 
millions, what will it be in 30 years from now? Another point: 
The people need wide open spaces of country, not merely for the 
refreshment of their bodies, but for the recreation and refreshment 
of their souls as well. 

No man can get a complete absence of care, a freedom from harass^ 
ing worries, so well as the man who leaves the city behind him, with 
its noise, its dust, its confusion and turmoil, and goes out in the quiet 
of the dunes. And it is just the same in the winter as it is in the 
summer. Think of what it means to the people who go out to the 
beach house, and other places, on a Saturday night. They go out 
with their packs on their backs, go to some small farmhouse and get 
their supplies of milk and eggs, gather up some fagots and make a 
fire, and enjoy themselves to the full. Nothing tastes so good as a 
meal cooked over an open fire. They watch the sun set over the 
lake, then build a camp fire and sit around it, chat and sing until 
late at night. They sleep upon the sand, wrapped snugly in their 



PROPOSED SAND DUXES NATIONAL PARK. ' 59 

blankets and ponchos; and then, though the bed is hard, their sleep 
is sweet and sound. In the morning they waken with an appetite 
that they have not had for months. They walk; they ramble; they 
botanize; they geologize; they play games. They find health and 
rest. Nothing is better than that. Getting out in the open air, as 
I said, is the greatest possible panacea for tired bodies and weary 
souls. Then they come home in the evening, having had from 24 
to 36 hours of real rest, and they come back new men and women. 
What we need in our country are many such places as this, and no 
city park, with its artificial surroundings, its conventionalized en- 
vironments, can meet that need. The dunes are being used as a 
place of recreation, and as something of benefit and interest to the 
people. A year or so ago a pageant was arranged, to which hundreds 
of people came. In the coming year a still greater one is being 
arranged b}^ members of the club. A group of several hundred 
people wiU take part in those exercises. It will depict the past, 
history of the country — a history which meant nothing to the early 
comers, for they had no time or desire for it. 

Now, are we going to let this present generation, with its greater 
leisure, its greater opportunities, its greater advantages, let that 
precious possession pass away from it — from us ? I trust not. Our 
nearest national park lies over a thousand miles west. The man of 
modest means can hardly expect to go there with his family more 
than once. Surely Congress will listen to the voice of the Middle 
West: ''We need these dunes for ourselves and for posterity." I 
thank you. 

Secretary Mather. We have one here to-day who has taken a keen 
interest in making the national parks better known to the women 
of the country. She is at the head of the conservation work of the 
General Federation of Women's Clubs. I am going to call on Mrs. 
John D. Sherman to give us a few words on what she thinks of the 
sand dunes. [Applause.] 

Mrs. John D. Sherman. Mr. Secretarj^ ladies, and gentlemen: 
The sand dunes of Indiana are more valuable for national-park pur- 
poses than for any other use to which they could possibly be put. 
[Applause.] I have spent many a happy day at tlie sand dunes — on 
them, and sometimes in them. [Laughter.] I know of the scenic 
beauty of that area; I know of its scientific interest; and, therefore, 
I know that this area is weU suited for a national ])ark. It not only 
is of interest to the local people, but peo])le all over the country are 
interested in this area, and it is rapidly becoming of Nation-wide 
importance. Not only do the people of Indiana and Illinois need 
this national park for recreation pur])oses, ])ut the people all over 
the country, the men, women, and children of tlie land, overjrvvhero, 
need the strength, the courage, and the inspiration tliat nature out 
of doors, such as is found at the sand dunes, has in store for thenx 



60 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

When people are given the opportunity, I beheve they will eagerly 
plan to spend their leisure hours in outdoor recreation, where nature 
is at her best, and when the entire vacation custom of the people is 
changed from the stultifying period of mere temporary diversion to 
a time in the great outdoor world of nature, where unnumbered and 
lasting benefits are to be gained — then we shall have greater men 
and greater women. [Applause.] Saving the sand dunes for a 
national park will help in this work. Mr. Secretary, I pledge the 
support of the two and one-half million clubwomen of the country 
to the support of the sand dunes national park. 

Secretary Mather. I understand that we have here the mayors 
of the two cities which lie at either end of this sand dunes section — 
Mayor Johnson, of Gary, and Mayor Redpath, of Michigan City. 
I will call on Mayor Johnson for just a word on behalf of the city 
of Gary. 

Mayor R. O. Johnson, of Gary, Ind. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and 
gentlemen, it certainly affords me great pleasure to meet with you 
to-day and to have listened to the very interesting and illuminating 
discussion which prevailed during this morning's session. I am glad 
indeed to hear words of encouragement from the citizens of Chicago, 
the city that is known throughout the world for its largeness and 
greatness in every respect. Compared to you, we in Gary feel that 
we have .but a humble little village. The doctor said this morning 
in his speech that Gary was a city of 30,000. Evidently he has not 
been there for a year or two, because the population is now between 
fifty and sixty thousand and growing in leaps and bounds. [Laughter 
and applause.] I am delighted to know that the people here are 
interested in the welfare of the citizenship of this country, because 
that is exactly what this proposition means, although it may not be 
apparent on its surface. No country can be greater than its citizen- 
ship, and no citizenship can be greater than its environment; and I 
want to say to you, Mr. Secretary, that the greatest thing that can 
be done at this time for this country, this great Middle West, is to 
preserve the sand dunes on the southern shores of Lake Michigan, in 
Indiana. [Applause.] 

This is a wonderful country and the eyes of the world are upon 
it now. But while the eyes of the world are upon us, watching us 
in our commercial and manufacturing activities, let them also look 
upon us as being a people who have not only the almighty dollar 
in view, but, first and foremost, are solicitous for the welfare of its 
citizenship and are looking forward to making better men and better 
women of itself. And well do we know that the making of good 
citizens can not be satisfactorily accomplished in the congested 
districts of a city. We have got to have our parks. In the city 
of Gary we have 7 miles of lake shore, but the 7 miles of lake shore 
is completely taken up with great industries. Those great indus- 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 61 

tries seem to play a necessary part in tli.' eeonoiny of our country, 
but while we are concerned with them, let us not forget to look 
forward to a time when we will b(^ manufacturers of great men and 
women, of better manhood and womanhood and ])etter citizenshij). 
[Applause.] To-da}^ I do not ])elieve that there is a more advan- 
tageous step to be taken along that line in this connnunity, dens(»ly 
populated as it is, than the consummation of the project whicli we 
are gathered here to-day to further, if possible. The great national 
parks in the West are very fine and we would not be witliout them, 
but the territory in which they are located is very sparsely settled. 
But in this locality there are millions of people. Gary alone is 
increasing at the rate of 10,000 to 15,000 a year. She started as 
a small village 10 years ago and is still just in her infancy even. But 
with that rate of increase and a very large rate of increase in the 
territory adjacent to us here, think of the congestion that will (^nsu(» 
say 30 years hence. 

So let us provide for that while we have the opportunity and 
reserve this wonderfully beautiful spot for that purpose, than which 
there is no more beautiful spot in all the world. That may sound 
like an extravagant statement, but you who have stood and looked 
across Lake Michigan from the sand dunes into the golden sunset 
will not hesitate to say that there is no more picturesque or beautiful 
spot in the world. If we can preserve those wonderful sand dunes, 
it will be one of the greatest steps forward that this Central West has 
ever taken for the betterment of its own citizens in particular and of 
humanity in general. I thank you for this privilege. [Applaus(\] 

Secretary Mather. They evidently know how to elect mayors 
down there at Gary. Now let us hear what Mr. ]{(Ml])ath, of Micld- 
gan City, on the other end of the dunes, lias to say about this project. 
[Applause.] 

Mr. G. O. Redpath. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen: The 
secretary stated a moment ago that I was the mayor of Michigan 
City. I am for to-day only a])pointed by our everyday mayor, Mr. 
Martin Krueger, to represent him and the people of Michigan City 
at this meeting. You have heard that great man, who made those 
pictures yonder, talk: and you heard the fighting Dane tell about 
the wonderful colors which he saw at the dunes yesterday. 1 laid 
in the sand and heard the noise of those rioting colors — he saw them: 
I heard them. 

You also heard another great man talk a botanist, a wonderful 
man. You also heard Prof. Millspaugli and many otlici- al)lc speakers. 
Consequently you do not want to hear me tell of the great wonch'rs 
of the dunes. 

I am here to lay before you a petition from the people of Michi- 
gan City, signed by them to show their ap))roval of tlic action of 
the Government in making a national park of the (hiiic country. 



62 PROPOSED SAI^D DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

This petition is signed by the mayor and his official family, and our 
Member of Congress, the Hon. H. A. Barnhart. There is also the 
signature of every banker, and our postmaster. There is the sig- 
nature of every priest and minister. There is the indorsement of 
the Elks, the Knights of Columbus, and the Freemasons. There are 
the signatures of all of the doctors, dentists, and surgeons. Every 
business man in our city and every manufacturer except two, whom 
I did not find at home, have signed this petition. 

This petition is the voice of 27,000 people calling to you. They 
all ask you to do all in your power to save the dunes from the de- 
stroying hand of commercialism by converting them into a national 
park. 

Yesterday I called upon A. Sanford White at his palatial summer 
home, which is located in the center of a 2,190-acre tract of land in 
"the heart of' the dune country, and having a 4-mile lake frontage. 
Mr. White is deeply attached to the place, for here he spends his 
happiest hours, but he is a strong advocate for the national park 
project and informed me that he would take far less for his holdings 
if the property were to be used as a national park than he would 
if it were to be used for any other purpose. 

I think it is quite probable that a large majority of other holders 
of property lying within the dunes have assumed the same attitude 
of mind. I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. Mrs. Frank E. Durfee, representing the Arche 
Club, will say a few words to us from her viewpoint and that of her 
fellow members of her club. 

Mrs. Frank E. Durfee. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen: I 
have the honor to be the chairman of the conservation class of the 
Arche CJub. Mrs. Steele, the president, was here during the entire 
morning session, as well as a great many other representatives of the 
Arche Club, because we are decidedly interested in this question, 
but she was unable to stay for the session this afternoon. We 
planned an excursion to the dunes previous to this hearing, and on 
that day it poured all day long. Notwithstanding that, a multitude 
of women donned their mackintoshes and rubbers, and went to the 
dunes with Mr. Jensen. Mr. Jensen said, ''Oh, I suppose you will 
all say, 'Oh, dear, I am catching cold. My feet are wet.' ^' But 
we all enjoyed a hearty laugh afterwards at his expense when he 
proved to be the only one present who even mentioned the weather. 
[Laughter.] But he had been there so many times before, I presume 
when the weather was fine, that it was the thing that disconcerted 
him that day. Now, you have heard a great deal about the Illinois 
Central coming into Chicago and occupying the lake front; but none 
of the speakers has said that the early citizens of Chicago were really 
to blame for the Illinois Central being on the lake front at this time; 
that is the fact. Our forefathers forgot, when they granted that 



PROPOSED SAXD DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 63 

franchise, that some of us some day would want to enjoy the lake 
front. And to-day Chicago, to cover that economical streak of our 
forefathers many years ago, must spend millions of dollars to make 
an artificial lake front outside of the Illinois Central. Let us bear 
that in mind in this matter, and not at some future time be compelled 
to make the dunes artificially, because we permitted them at this 
time to be done away with for the sake of some commercial enterprise. 
I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. I will now call on Miss Caroline M. Mcllvaine, 
representing the Chicago Historical Society. [Applause.] 

Miss Caroline M. McIlvaine. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentle- 
men, the rush of settlers into the lands west of the AUcghenies at 
the close of the Revolution made it necessary to provide civil govern- 
ment for thf> new region, and this need was met by the famous ordi- 
nance of 1787. sometimes called ''The Magna Charta of the West." 
By this instrument the great region north of the Ohio River became 
a politieal unit, later to divide itself into the group of the sister States 
christened with their musical Indian names Oliio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. With one impulse the new 
Republic had burst the bounds set for it by foreign powers and had 
begun pushing the frontier from the Alleghenies toward the Pacific. 

By 1800 the population of the Northwest Territories had so in- 
creased that Sir William St. Clair could no longer preserve order, and 
just at the time that Spain was ceding Louisiana back to France it 
was divided and aU west of the present State of Ohio was rechristened 
the Territory of Indiana, with William Henry Harrison for its gov- 
ernor. This Territory extended westward to the Mississippi and 
northward to Canada an unbroken wilderness, save for the old French 
settlements Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and Vincennes — microscopic as com- 
pared to the vast region. 

The first movement on the part of the United States to protect 
the new frontier was the establishment, in 1803, by order of President 
Thomas Jefferson, of Fort Dearborn, at the mouth of the Chicago 
River, the outmost post of civihzation. Accordingly, Capt. John 
Whistler was selected from the garrison at Detroit, the western mili- 
tary base, to head the enterprise. How it stirs one to trace the steps 
by which great schemes of statescraft are put into actual operation. 
How frail, almost pathetic, appears the agent of a great Government 
in initiating a move of such importance. 

The establishment of the Govenmient post at Chicago had con- 
siderable influence upon the settlement of Porter and adjoining 
counties in Indiana, through which the thoroughfare led that was to 
be the main artery by which emigration flowed to the far West, as the 
Mississippi was then called. The thoroughfare that connected the 
East and the West was the Detroit-Chicago Road coincident in part 
with the Great Sauk Trail and its branches. We are fortunate in 



64 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

having a military journal kept by Lieut. Swearmgen, then a youth 
of 21; in command of some 50 Regulars — the First Regimeit of 
United States Infantry — detached from Col. Hamtramok's command 
at Detroit on its march to build Fort Dearborn; also a survey of the 
road on which every mile is accurately indicated. 

After crossing the present State of Michigan, Swearingen relates 
that the troops camped successively at ^^Kinzie's Improvement" 
(Niles), New Buffalo, and at the mouth of the Portage River, where 
Michigan City now is; and on August 15 he records ^'Proceeded on 
our march at 5 o'clock a. m., 39 miles, and encamped at half past 5 
p. m. near an old fort." The ruins of this fort must have been in evi- 
dence for many years. Gen. Hull's map of 1812 locates '^ Little Fort" 
onHhe creek that now enters the lake beside the hospitable cabin of 
''Fish" Johnson. The next day they camped on the ''Little Cala- 
mac," having crossed the "Grand Calamac" at 8 o'clock a. m. Near 
this crossing now stands the BaiUy mansion, built here about 20 
years later. 

On August 17, 1803, at 2 p. m., the company was at its joumej^'s 
end and encamped on the Chicago River, 362 miles from Detroit. 

The Utopian existence between Red men ard w^hite in the North- 
west Territory, due mainly to Wayne's treaty at Greenville in 1795, 
and to the almost continuous treaties of Gen. Harrison, aided by the 
councils of Little Turtle and William Wells, had begun to show evi- 
dence of being undermined by the British, when, in 1806, Wells first 
learned of the plot to surprise Detroit, Mackinaw, Fort Wayne, and 
Chicago. This plot culminated in 1812. 

The faU of Fort Dearborn, notwithstanding the heroic efforts of its 
sister post. Fort Wa3rne, to lend succor, needs no repetition here. 
The two posts were in constant relation, the transfer of officers and 
men being frequent. 

Our efforts to visualize conditions on this frontier are not entirel}' 
unaided, for, strange to say, artists penetrated even this wilderness, 
as is evidenced by several contemporary paintings recently discov- 
ered. One of these, by an unknown painter, depicts Wayr.e, Harrison, 
and WiUiam Wells, the latter in the capacity, of interpreter, being 
addressed by Chief Little Turtle and his band of Miamis from northern 
Indiana, the latter, no doubt, stipulating for the very shore on which 
is built our Beach House to-day. 

But the most fortunate find of all is a painting of the "Treaty of 
the Mississinewa, in 1823," by George Winter, of Lake County, known 
as "The Catlin of Indiana." In this Col. Pepper and Gov. Harrison 
are shown seated at a rough table in the midst of a deep forest glade 
being harrangucd by Mus-que-buck, who is accompanied by scores 
of his red followers, all portrayed from life with wonderful faithful- 
ness as to faces and costume. 



PEOPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 65 

A colossal painting of the Fort Dearborn Massacre, by Samuel 
Page, gives us what is said to be an exact portrait of Capt William 
Wells, whose gold knee bucldes and tomahawk, used in the massacre, 
repose in the Chicago Historical Society. 

Scarcely less graphic than these paintings are the words of Frances 
R. Howe, the granddaughter of Joseph Bailly, of Baillytown, in relat- 
ing a hitherto unrecorded chapter of history, namely, the secret 
rescue in his canoe of two women survivor's of the massacre by Chief 
Shaubenay, a distant kinsman of Madam Bailly, of his findhig asylum 
for the fugitives in the inlets and sand hills of the Indiana shore, and 
of the journey's happy end at Mackhiaw. 

In 1822, while it was still Indian country, Joseph Bailly removed 
his fur trading station from Pare aux Vaches to the region of the Calu- 
met, known as Baillytown, and there built a log mansion house that 
for more than a century has been not only a landmark on the Sauk 
Trail or Chicago Road, but in earlier times a place famous for hospi- 
tality and its extraordinarily handsome daughters. Early literature 
has not neglected the hostelries of the dune region, for Charles Fenno 
Hoffman, of New York, the witty author of ' 'A Winter in the W^est," 
and Harriet Martineau, both dilate upon their interesting experiences 
at Bailly's and at Michigan City, and a young Mr. Tinkham relates 
in a letter written in 1831 that his traveling companion, Henry Hub- 
bard, was so impressed with the culture and beauty of the daughters 
(Bailly) that he announced the intention of ^ 'having at least two of 
them.'' We judge that his suit was not encouraged, for the writer 
later comments upon the sourness of disposition of Mr. Bailly. 
[Laughter.] These and similar experiences were repeated by scores 
of the future residents of Chicago wlio traveled by stage coach or 
horseback or in their own carriages through this section. 

Of City West, old and ''New," that fabled metropolis of the Lakes — 
Waverly Furnessville, etc., there is not time to speak, but we histo- 
rians believe that our historical survey of this region has shown that 
the story of the Way to the West — -the progress of the frontier — could 
not be written without the dunes of Porter County. I thank you. 
[Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. This has been very interesting, so I think 
at this time I will ask Mr. George A. Brennan, historian of the Illinois 
Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, to tell us some 
more about the history of the dune region. [Ai)plause.] 

Mr. George A. Bkennan. Mr. Secretary and friends of the dunes: 
As a lover and student of the dunes for over 40 years, I am al)l(' to 
appreciate heartily all tiie good things that have been said about i Ikmu 
to-day. It has been a rest and n pleasure to all of" those who have 
visited the dunes. I was very mucli interested in what Mr. Roscmi- 
wald said about the children of Chicago. For a number of years the 

95781—17 5 



66 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

Chicago board of education has spent many, many thousands of 
dollars —running up into the hundreds of thousands — in beautifying 
schools and teaching children the love of nature. Our school garden 
work in some schools is of such a kind that we have visitors from all 
over the United States to see how such work can be arranged in their 
cities. We are trying hard to get a great conservatory at the normal 
school, to train our teachers how to handle this subject properly. 

In regard to the historical part, I would say that there is no region 
that I know of in the United States that is richer in historical material 
than this neighborhood under discussion. Dr. Cowles, of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, spoke of the botanical features of the dunes. I ap- 
preciate that very much, because 25 years ago I had the honor of 
assisting Dr. Higley, of the Academy of Sciences, in getting out his 
.book on the flora of this region, and I hope this winter that the Prairie 
Club will have the pleasure of putting out, or having put out, the re- 
vised book on ''The Flora of the Chicago Region," by Dr. Herman 
Pepoon. The historical feature that appeals to us so much is one that 
has been sadly neglected. We have all heard of the Chicago portage, 
and the Calumet portage, but about 200 years ago these two were so 
mixed up that it was impossible to tell what the writers meant. 

The Calumet River was also called the Chicago River. But as the 
result of investigation, it seems to me that the following statement 
will explain the situation clearly: Marquette and the other mission- 
aries and explorers who came down here found that coming from the 
north the current swept down on the west side and then came up 
on the east side. That is the reason the sand dunes were brought 
down from the north and deposited on the southern and eastern 
shores. Marquette, on his voyage down from St. Ignace, undoubtedly 
used our regular Chicago portage. But when he was here on his 
second trip, when he was dying, and his men had to take such good 
care of him, I think it is safe to say that he went up through the Sag 
and the Calumet portage, so as to avoid the rough lake, and that 
portage also saved him over 40 miles of rough Lake Michigan voyage. 
Marquette and others of the missionaries did a great deal of work in 
that sand dune region. They established missions, and wont all 
through our neighborhood preaching to the natives. La Salle is 
known and is spoken of in history as a great explorer, a great states- 
man, a man with a vision. He certainly was. He was also one of 
the most unfortunate of men. But in his day, when he was in 
America, he was known as the great fur trader, and did much of his 
trading around the shores of Lake Michigan, especially in this dune 
region. He was the John Jacob Astor of his time. The King of 
France gave him permission to establish that great line of forts that 
were spoken of, that his vision saw would dominate the Mississippi 
Valley. He was empowered *to build them, but he was empowered 
to build them out of his own money; and that is the reason that he 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 67 

was conipoUod to act as tho great fur trader of that timo in America, 
to enable him to get the money for his groat purpose. We all remem- 
])er his unfortunate ond in Texas, where h«^ was kiVlod hy one of his 
own lieutenants. 

During the French occupation that region from Fort St. Joseph to 
Chicago was covered with great forests, wonch^rful forests, tilled with 
a great variety of game. The gvoai forts were Detroit and Mackinac. 
Another was built at Fort St. Joseph and still another, known as the 
Little Fort, was built right here at Tremont, about lialfway between 
Waverly Bc^acli and Tremont, on the old creek, which is known as 
Fort Creek. Maj. Godfrey de Linctot, the great trader, as an aid of 
Gen. Clark, captured Little Fort, or La Pay, as the English called it, 
in 1779, and held it during tho war, thus keeping this territory for 
the Americans. It has also been known as French Creek. I look(*d 
for that for a number of years before I could locate it. It was spoken 
of ])y travelers as French Creek, because there were some French 
])eople settled there near the fort. 

But as historian of the Sons of the American Revolution jt has 
Ix^en my privilege, and sometimes my probleiti, to try to locate 
tliese things mentioned in history during the Colonial and Revolu- 
tionary Wars. I received a special injunction to find out where that 
revolutionary battle was fought. Some historians have located it in 
South Chicago; others at the mouth of the Grand Calum^'^t, at 
Millers; others at Little Fort, and one dispatch bears that out ; others 
at Michigan City. One of the professors of the University of Illinois, 
Dr. C. W. Alvord, among others, ask^d me to try to settle the ([ues- 
tion. I assure you it was work. Lieut. De Quindre is mentioned in 
an official dispatch as having pursued these Americaiis. who had 
come from (^ahokia, and captured Fort St. Joseph, which was at 
Xiles, Mich. On their way back to Cahokia and Peoria via Chicago 
he pursued them, he said, and overtook them at this Little Fort, 
about 10 miles west of Michigan City. Some authorities have taken 
that as final, l)ut I dug a littl'> more de?ply and found a statement 
in the early British records, as foiind in our historical society, show- 
ing that Lieut. Gov. vSeymour, of Markinaw, had received oth^r infor- 
mation from people who had boMi th:M-e: an<l iu^ makes the state- 
ment that instead of Lieut. De Quindre, it was Mi-. Cliampion. (he 
head trader, who had pursued and defecated tliein; and tlial hap- 
pened, he says, at Trail Creek, the location of Michigan City. 1 looked 
still further, and found out that Li(Mit. Gov. vSoymour had become 
impatient at the charge that De Quindn^ had done this work nm] 
had written a letter to Gen. Powell stating that it was nol so: that 
De Quindre was an imposter, and that this other man, Mr. Champion, 
was the one wlio (h^feated the Americans. 

Upon further investigation, 1 found a letter from tlie secretary of 
the Governor of Canada, stating that his excellency liad received 



68 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

Lieut. Gov. Seymour's dispatch, and that the latter might help Mr 
Champion as much as he wished, and give him all the privileges that 
he was entitled to. I think that this finally settles the matter, that 
the Revolutionary battle was fought at Trail Creek at Michigan City. 
Then some of the Americans who escaped went to St. Louis, and 
told the governor, who was a Spaniard — for the country was Spanish 
then — that it was easy to capture Fort St. Joseph. A detachment 
of Spaniards, Americans, French, and Indians was accordingl}" dis- 
patched, to go across our region, and capture Fort St. Joseph. They 
did that in 1781. As there were more Spaniards than Americans 
and French put together, the captain of the Spaniards was made 
commander of the expedition, and when he got up to Fort St. Joseph, 
he pulled down the English flag; and, to the indignation of the 
Americans, he ran up the Spanish flag, and took possession of all of 
the northwest region in the name of the King of Spain, despite the 
fact that Maj. Linctot was in actual command of Little Fort, at 
Tremont, and was holding this region for the United Stated. He 
took the English flag, burned the fort, and went back to St. Louis, 
where he told the governor what lie had done, and that he presented 
this new province to Spain. The governor thanked him, took the 
flag, wrote a nice letter to the King of Spain, and sent the flag with 
it. The King of Spain sent back a very nice letter, thanking him, 
and accepting the whole Northwest Territory that had been annexed 
in the name of the King of Spain. 

One or two little forts down in the southwest ter^^itory, near the 
Floridas, had been captured in the same way, and handed over to 
the King of Spain, and he also annexed that territory. That is the 
reason that at the end of the Revolutionary War Spain and France 
tried to limit the United States to the territory east and north of the 
AUeghanies, claiming that this country between the iUleglianies and 
the Mississippi belonged to Spain. Spain wished to take the south- 
west territory, and France the Northwest Territory. But that bar- 
gain we would not allow, and we got the land that we now have. 
I am simply giving this as an example of the wonderful history con- 
nected with our region, 'which this Spanish captain annexed to Spain 
in the year 1781. So because of the rich historical interest of this 
particular section of the country, if for none of the man}' other 
reasons that have been so ably urged, I think we should by all means 
preserve this section of the country in the best possible form, and 
that I believe to be in the shape of a national park. I thank you. 
[Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. There is present a gentlemen who has been much 
interested in the dune country. He is a large property owner down 
there. I think we would all enjoy a few words from him at this time, 
so I am going to ask Mr. Henry W. Leman' if he will speak to us 
[Applause.] 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. G9 

Mr. Henry W. Leman. Mr. vSecretary, ladies, and gentlemon. I am 
somewhat of an interested party in a financial way in this question, 
but in a sentimental way I am much more interested in the pres- 
ervation of these dunes. I have been going down there, off and 
on, for more than 25 years; and with the exception of my friend 
Will Davis, who spoke here, I think I have been down there about 
as many years as any of the speakers who have been before you. So 
far as the natural conditions are concerned, they are undoubtedly 
superior in interest to anything within many miles of Chicago; but 
I think, with reference to the question of health, that their benefit far 
outweighs and exceeds an}^ natural advantage. If I \vas a doctor — 
which I am not — I think I would drive all of my patients that were 
not in good health down into the sand dune district, and sentence 
them to all the w^ay from 30 to 60 days there; and I should expect 
them to all come back perfectly well. I know from personal expe- 
rience among m}^ freinds, and in my own family, of the great advan- 
tages that have been derived, in the way of health, from living among 
the dunes. Whether it is the air, or the trees, or the sand, or all 
three combined, I do not know; but I know of no case of a person 
going down there, where they did not come back feeling very much 
refreshed, and very much better in every respect. Now, there is 
another phase of the proposition that has not been discussed to any 
great extent, and I tliink it is one of the most attractive things 
down there. I refer to the beaches. I have done some traveling in 
my day; I have seen the principal beaches in this country, and many 
of those in Europe, and many of those in Asia. The prettiest beach 
I think I ever saw, outside of those dune beaches, was at Kamikura, 
about 25 miles out of Yokohama, Japan; but I assure you, ladies 
and gentlemen, that Kamikura has nothing at all on these dune 
park region beaches. The beaches there are finer, in my judgment, 
than any that I ever saw, with perhaps the exception of this Kami- 
kura beach and they are fully equal, at least, to that. 

The secretary here gave out a rather misleading announcement 
of this meeting, I think. As I understood it, all people interested 
in this question pro and con should be here; but it looks to me as if 
this meeting was pretty thoroughly packed all one way. I could 
not discover from conversation with gentlemen sitting around me 
and others but what they all were of the opinion tluit this (hnie 
district should be preserved as a natural park; and I hope, if any- 
thing of that kind takes place the Government will coiifiiH^ itself 
to leaving it in its wild state, just buihhng here and there a road 
perhaps, so that we can have easier access to it, and in that way we 
will get better advantages than we will by attempting to make a 
large park of it and fixing it all up artificially. Now, I do not know 
that there is anything more tliat T can say. Tt looks to me as if 
this movement were one that ou^^ht to })e encouraircd. F think from 



70 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

a health standpoint, from a historical standpoint, from a natural 
standpoint, and, as Mr. Johnson has said, from the standpoint of 
building up better men and women, I think this district is valuable; 
and with the large surrounding area and the large population in that 
area, it is needed here more than it is needed in any other part of 
the country. I sincerely hope the project will go through. I thank 
you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. Mr. Dwight H. Perkins is here and in view^ of 
the keen interest that he has taken in the development of parks and 
forests here, I think it would be very appropriate that we hear from 
him. [Applause.] ■ ' 

Mr. Dwight H. Perkins. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, 
when Mr. Dorr wrote me a note and asked me to speak on this sub- 
ject at this time, I w^as somewhat embarrassed, becatise I did not 
feel especially qualified. I knew that the great botanists, the great 
historians, the great humanitarians, the great scientists, the great 
artists, and others of prominence would all speak here, and I knew 
that they would all speak in their strongest terms in favor of the 
preservation of the dunes as a national park. I asked all of my 
friends what I should say, as representing them, and I got universal 
approbation of the idea, but nothing from them that has not been 
said many times, and well said, in this room to-day. So when I 
came here this morning I thought 1 might get my cue from the 
opposition. I felt that if I was called upon in the latter part of the 
day perhaps I might answer some of the opponents of this scheme. 
But again I have been disappointed. I think I have heard all 
of what has been said here and I have not heard a word in opposi- 
tion. If there is opposition expressed later on in this hearing I 
hope, Mr. Secretary, you will call a number of those who have already 
spoken to answer that opposition whatever it may be. I therefore 
assume that the only thing that is left for me in a moment to do is 
to assure the secretary that the Chicago community — and by that 
I mean that group of people that extends from Michigan City to 
Waukegan and at least to the Fox River, if not the Rock River, and 
clear to Kankakee — is solidly behind this movement. 

That is all Chicago, Mr. Secretary; it is a state of mind, a state of 
activity, and it is one community. I assume, Mr. Secretary, that 
Congress will do anything that the people want and that they will 
even create a precedent if the people want it. Your own question, 
I think, has come nearer to being a question in opposition than any- 
spoken to-day; that is, as to whether or not Congress would create 
or establish a precedent by buying lands for a national park. Now. 
after all, it is our money and this is our purpose; and Congress, of 
course, is a willing servant. I assume therefore that Congress 
simply wants to know what we want. Therefore it is reasonable to 
assume that if there is no other way to get the dunes than by bu^^ing 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 71 

them and paying for them, now is the time to create that precedent. 
I therefore beg to submit the record of Chicago, the record of this 
community, to estabhsh the proposition that this community is 
intelligent on the park proposition; and if it is intelligent and if it 
expresses itself, as I believe it does properly, through every speaker 
who has been here this afternoon and this morning — if that is the 
proper expression, and I am sure it is — it means that this intelligent, 
powerful community of Chicago wants that thing, and is willing to 
pay for it, and is willing to indorse whatever action Congress takes, 
and is willing to second any recommendation the Department of the 
Interior in its experience and faithfulness is willing to make. We 
appreciate the honor and credit you are conferring upon us by callmg 
this hearing upon the subject of the preservation of the dunes. 

Let me speak of one matter with which I happened to be con- 
nected. The citizens of Chicago, limited by the boundaries of Cook 
County, are now spending $11,000,000 in the establishment of forest 
preserves. That is the result of 14 years of actual constructive 
campaigning. It is now going into effect. Mr. O'Leary spoke of 
our great park system. I agree with him; it is a great park system 
for you or me as individuals; but compared with other communities, 
I grieve to confess that it is very small. We rank something like 
thirty-eighth among American cities. We have a wonderful park 
system; very true. But, on any per capita calculation, on any cal- 
culation per thousand, you will fhid, with cities of one hundred 
thousand or over, that we are down to rank thirty-eighth. 

Now, that may appear to be contrary to what I have just said, 
that we are an intelligent community. We are doing our best to 
change that. While Boston, for instance, has 12,000 acres of parks 
and we have less than 4,000, and while Boston lias but a little over 
one-third of the population that we have, still we are spending more 
than $3,000,000 a year in our local system; we are increasing it; 
and our 4,000 acres is being increased at this moment by the purchase 
of 10,000 acres in forest preserves. I can speak definitely, because 
I am one of the committee engaged in carrying out that purchase; 
and we have 20,000 acres more under consideration. Taking all this 
into the count, I come back again to assume from that, that tliis 
community is really intelligent on the park question; that it is chs- 
satisfied with what it lias; tliat it is providhig in taxes many millions 
of dollars to cure that condition; and that, therefore, it will un- 
qualifiedly indorse whatever you recommend, and whatever Congress 
does, toward the purchase and tlie preservation for all time of the 
sand dunes of Indiana. I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. In view of what Mr. Perkins has said, 1 think 
it is necessary for me to emphasize again tlie point that I made this 
morning; that neither I nor my chief, the Secretary of the Interior, 
has any power to decide whether or not any part of the dunes region 



72 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

shall be preserved as a national park. We are merely charged with 
the duty of investigating this project and ascertaining facts and 
figures which Congress wants for its information in the event that it 
gives consideration to this project. Congress and Congress only has 
the power to establish a national park, and a decision on this project 
must be expected of Congress and not of the Department of the 
Interior. All of you who are interested in this project must promote 
its progress in the National Legislature at the proper time. Our 
report will go to Congress in black and white, and it will appear in a 
much colder form than you perhaps think it will. These proceed- 
ings here to-day have been cordial and there has been much en- 
thusiasm evidenced. We have talked together in a personal way, 
but the atmosphere of this hearing can not be brought out in the 
printed report. So bear it clearly in mind that we are simply here 
to get the material together; and whatever my own feelings may be 
in the matter, they will have but very little bearing on the whole 
proposition. When it comes up before Congress, if anything is to 
be done, it must be followed up, probably by a personal appearance 
there before the proper committees. You must bring it directly 
before the committees in order that they may fully appreciate your 
views of the importance of this sand dunes park proposition to 
Chicago, to Indiana, and to the Nation. Now, we will be pleased 
to hear from Mrs. John Worthy, president of the Outdoor League. 
She wiU speak on behalf of her organization. [Applause.] 

Mrs. John Worthy. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen: It 
seems as though almost everything has been said that could be said, 
but I know that often one little word may help some. We are work- 
ing with these societies. Our society stands for out-of-door beauty. 
Our motto is, '^ Leave the world more beautiful than when vou 
found it." We have worked in those school gardens that have been 
told about here; we have worked for all of these wonderful things, 
and, more than that, we have worked with the societies which are 
working for the dunes. We have been with them, absolutely and 
unqualifiedly. I thought that when Mrs. Sherman was appointed 
delegate I would not have to speak; but there are perhaps even a 
few words that I can say which have not been said. I want to say 
not only that the Outdoor Art League, which is perhaps a small 
society, is working along this line, but many, many thousands of 
women in different parts of Illinois are working with us every day 
and every hour. The chairman of the conservation class of the 
Arche Club spoke about their class; but there are a few clubs in this 
part of the country who have not conservation departments. They 
have forestry classes. They are interested, and they are working. 
Now, believe me, it is not just a few, but they are all working, and 
they will work. As Mr. Mather says, if this comes before Congress 
it will mean further work; and we all wiU work, and work hard, too, 



PEOPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 73 

for the success of this project, and it is my dearest hope that we will 
work successfully, because I think this is a thing regarding which 
we should look well into the future, rather than confine our vision 
to the present. 

Some of us have always said that if the older settlers of Chicago 
had known what Chicago would grow to be, there were certain 
things that they would not have done. I suppose that they have said 
that same thing in Gary, too. [Laughter.] Now, we know what these 
places do grow to be, and we are beginning to see the possibilities 
of growth all over this country. We believe that this is the time 
for Congress to arrange to take over this land as a national park. 
I do not think it is a matter strictly for Chicago people, at all, al- 
though I think that money could be raised for it here, if it came to 
that. Neither is it a matter for the State of Indiana, because if 
the State of Indiana took it over, then it would be a State park. It 
is a matter for the Congress of the United States, unquestionably. 
It should be a national park, and I promise that so far as the Outdoor 
Art League is concerned, either by itself, or in conjunction with all 
of these various preservation societies, or in conjunction with the 
forestrv classes and conservation classes throughout the entire north- 
ern district of this State, and of Indiana, it will work its hardest to 
bring this matter to a successful consummation. They pledge 
themselves to that, and there are thousands and thousands of women 
who will do this work. I thank 3^ou. [Applause.] 

^Secretary Mather. I iind that we have a former official of the 
Department of the Interior here, Mr. Jesse E. Wilson, who was an 
Assistant Secretary of the Interior Department under an earlier 
administration; and as he comes from the State of Indiana, I am 
going to ask Mr. Wilson if he wiU give us the benefit of his views on 
this project. [Applause.] 

Mr. Jesse E. Wilson. Mr. vSecretary, ladies, and gentlemen: Hav- 
ing been born and raised in Indiana, it might seem more or less 
selfish of me to advocate the establishment of a park along the lake 
in northern Indiana, near where I now live. I have come to this 
meeting as a representative of the Hammond Chamber of Commerce, 
having been president of that association for tlu^ past two years. 
We have two or three other representatives liere, too. I think I 
can truthfully say that three-fourths of those wlio have given this 
matter any thought at all, think that these sand dunes should be 
preserved as a Goverimient ])ark. While I was Assistant Secretary 
of the Department of the Interior, 1 had something to do, more or 
less, with the parks. At that time the su])ervision of the parks was 
not organized as it is now, and I am glad to see now that this super- 
vision is in much better shape, especially under the secretary here, 
than it was under former administrations. I often have wondered, 
however, that all of our Government ])arks should be located west of 



74 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

the Rocky Mountains. Why is it, when the center of the population 
is in Indiana? I think the census of 1910 gave the center of popula- 
tion near Shelby ville, Ind., so Indiana has within it the center of 
population of this country. 

Now, that being so, and with various colleges — some of the best 
institutions in the United States — located within a short distance of 
these sand dunes, which are of such historic value, and so interesting 
to the student of nature — being only a short distance from Ann Arbor, 
the State University of Michigan, and only a short distance from 
Champaign, the State University of Illinois, only a short distance 
from the University of Chicago, from Northwestern University, from 
Indiana University, and Ohio University, and various educational 
institutions of the country — ^^there can be no question but what these 
dunes should be preserved. It is not always possible for people who 
are trying to give their children an education in nature study, when 
there are no public places to which they may go for outdoor nature 
study, to send them clear across the Rocky Mountains. But if we 
had a Government park here, any child in the whole United States 
could come and feel that they owned a part of that park, and that 
they had as nnich right there as anybody else. And if such a park 
could be located, as this would be, right in the heart of a territory 
occupied by some of the greatest educational institutions in the 
country, I think it would be one of the grandest things that this 
Government has ever done. I know of no good reason why the 
Government, that is spending so many millions of dollars on various 
improvements, should object to spending a little money in a project 
of this kind. You know, we have the reputation of being a nation 
that is called money mad, and we have got to get over that. We 
must realize as never before that it is not merely the acquiring of 
money that this Nation should be interested in, but that this country 
should do ever34hing in its power which will tend to the making of 
better citizens, and the more easy amalgamation of its citizens, 
especially in this locality, in which we have so many different nation- 
alities represented. Therefore, I think that beyond question this 
spot should be set aside as a national park. I thank you. [A]iplause.] 

Secretary Mather. I am sorry that Senator Taggart could not be 
present to-day. We sent him an invitation, but he could not get 
here. We also sent invitations to attend this hearing to Congressman 
William R. Wood, of the tenth Indiana district, and Congressman 
Henry A. Barnhart, of the thirteenth Indiana district. Their two 
districts include sections of the dunes which could logically be in- 
cluded in a park; but I believe neither of them could be present. 
Perhaps we will have formal statements from them later in the form 
of briefs, which will be added to the proceedings of the hearing. 
Now, we have at the hearing a representative of the Chicago Woman's 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 75 

Club, Mrs. J. G. Fessenden, and I am going to ask Mrs. Fossondcn to 
say a few words on behalf of the Cliicago Woman's Club. [Applause.] 

Mrs. J. G. Fessendex. Mr. Secretary, ladies and gentlemen, just 
a very brief word, if you please. AVe have heard so many excellent 
reasons ably presented for the preservation of the dune area as a 
national park that anything further would almost seem to be mere 
surplusage. Therefore, Mr. Secretary, I desire to simply say, on 
behalf of the Woman's Club, that the entire club stands ready to do 
everything in its power to bring this matter to a successful con- 
summation. Thank you. [A})plause.] 

Secretary Mather. Prof. A. F. Probst, of the Chicago Preparatory 
Institute, is here. We will be very glad to hear a few words from 
Prof. Probst now. [Applause.] 

Prof. Albert F. Probst. Mr Secretary, ladies and gentlemen, 
I am very glad indeed to be able to speak to such an audience as this; 
an audience so full of sand as most of you seem to be. [Laughter.] 
It is a rare opportunity that one has of speaking to such a repre- 
sentative body. 

In the last eight years, in conducting students and teachers' excur- 
sions from the University of Chicago and Northwestern University, 
I have taken probably 3,000 teachers to the sand dunes. These 
people were from all parts of the country, practically every State in 
the Union being represented, besides a number of foreign countries. 
These teachers were most deeply interested in the sand dunes, and 
with tlieir notebooks and their cameras they were able to gather 
much valuable material to carrv ])ack to their schools for the benefit 
of their pupils 

Eight years ago when we made our lirst excursion to the dunes, 
''Hoosier Slide" was one of the most famous dunes on the Inch^ana 
shore. To-day it has almost disappeared, partially through migra- 
tion and partially through being carried away for grading purposes 
by the railroads. If we 'wish to j)reserve, in all their wonderful 
naturalness, these great dunes for a national park, something must 
be done and that soon, for this same thing is going on in vai-ious 
sections of the dune area. 

These dunes, from an e(hi('alioiial point of view, are among the 
most wonderful in the world. You have lieard the story, most 
forcibly told, from very able sj)eakers, and we hope and trust, Mr. 
Secretary, that you will not tliink us selfish when we plead for the 
preservation of these sand dunes from Gary to the Michigan vSiate 
line for a national park. These dunes lie \n a territory tliat is readily 
accessible to a number of our great universities. Th(^ dunes liavo 
been and wiU continue to be of great educational vahie to the thou- 
sands of students and instructors of these universities; to the 8, ()()() 
public school teachers of Chicago and to more than a lialf million 
public school children within a radius of two hours' ride of this won- 



76 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

derful country; and, above all, the dunes are a veritable paradise to 
the thousands who come to Chicago every year to study in this great 
city, one of the greatest educational centers in the world. We trust, 
therefore, Mr. Secretary, that you will not think we are asking too 
much for the people of this great Middle West when we ask for this 
wonderful dune area for a national park, where all our people can go 
and from which they can carry back to all sections of our country 
and to other countries nature's greatest lessons to her people. 
[Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. Mr. J. G. Morgan, of Chesterton, Ind., has 
recently come in. We will have a few words from Mr. Morgan, who 
is a considerable landowner in that section of the country. [Ap- 
plause.] 

Mr. J. G. Morgan. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I do not 
appear before you claiming to be a public speaker. I was born a 
pioneer, over 80 years ago, and have never in that time made any 
claim to being a public speaker. But in the few moments I have to 
spare I want to say my little word in behalf of this worthy project. 
I have lived for years within a very few miles of this proposed dune 
park. I know all that region well. I know its attractions and the 
objections that might be urged to it and everything that could 
possibly be brought up. With regard to the park, I am heartily in 
favor of it, because, having lived there as long as I have, I see the 
necessity of it for the benefit of the rising generation. I have lived 
a pretty long life, and I have kept my eyes open most of it, and the 
necessity of a thing like this is very plain to me, for the purpose of 
the education of the younger class of people, the young men and 
women, and the children. This park could be used as an elegant 
placje of schooUng for them, where they could go on wonderfully 
instructive and beneficial outings; whereas now, at the present 
time, the amusements of too many of our young people consist of 
visiting the picture theaters and going on automobile trips. If 
this park could be utilized for that purpose, it would be utilized for 
a good purpose. Teachers could take their children out there and 
instruct them in nature study, teaching them the different kinds of 
vegetation, birds, animals, etc. 

I presume there are very few of those within the sound of my 
voice to-day who can tell the different kinds of trees, plants, birds, 
and. animals. There are also very many who know nothing about 
how to swim, which is something that every human being should 
know, old and young, large and small, for they never know at what 
time the ability to swim may stand them in very good stead for the 
purpose of saving their own lives or the life of another. I view this 
whole proposition in the light of the needs of the rising generation. 
The young people need it. I would like to speak to you longer on 
this interesting topic, but you have heard from so many others who 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 77 

have presented it more ably than I, and there arc still more to follow, 
that I will not detain you any longer. Thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. Prof. Wilhelm Miller, of the American Civic 
Association and American Society of Landscape Architects, is here 
and I am going to ask him to address us now. Prof. Miller was 
formerly editor of Country Life in America and head of the division 
of landscape extension in the University of Illinois. I take pleasure 
in presenting Prof. Miller. [Applause.] 

Prof. Wilhelm Miller. I am here as an unofficial representative 
of the American Civic Association and of the Professional Landscape 
Architects of America. I have been listening all day to this love 
feast and thinking how perfect an expression it is of the people's 
interest and of how little effect it would have on Congress. A 
Member of the House recently told me that Congress is singularly 
uninterested in national parks and that there is no precedent what- 
ever for buying land for such a purpose. For these reasons he 
thought that the dune project had ''not a ghost of a show." More- 
over, in his opinion, the dunes are not one of the world's great wonders, 
as the mountain parks are. 

I want to give h frank and honest answer to the question, ''Are 
the dunes really of national park grade?" The ordinary Congress- 
man will say, "No. That is a Chicago project, or else a State park 
proposition for Illinois or Indiana, separately or together. The 
whole eastern shore of Lake Michigan is one great series of dunes. 
There are sand hills enough for all the people forever. Even if they 
became endangered, the Government could buy tens of thousands of 
acres on the east shore at the price now asked for this little strip on 
the south shore." 

Before giving my opinion let me state the point of view. I have 
been for years a member of the American Civic Association, of which 
J. Horace McFarland is the president. That society has done a 
great deal to preserve Niagara Falls. It has also examined every 
biU affecting the national parks and has discovered a good many 
jokers in them. This association and the American vSociety of Land- 
scape Architects examined critically the bill creating th(* Bun^nii of 
National Parks and approved it. Both of them examined tiic j)n)- 
ject for a National Park Service and approved that. Landscaj)e 
architects are a singularh^ disillusioned body of experts, whose 
business it is to judge the comparative value of scenic Iniuls for })ark 
purposes. It would be uii])r()fessionnl therefore for me to be in- 
fluenced by any selfish motive or any local interest in deciding 
whether the dunes are really of national park grade. 

What are the proper standards for judging the value of a natiomil 
park proposition^ There are three — scenic value, health value, and 
accessibility. Scenic value 1 put first. Ix'cause th(> parks are not for 
profit, like the forests. Tiiey are for the pleasure of the people, and 



78 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

they supply that pleasure through their scenery. Speaking, then, as 
a professional judge of the value of scenery to the people I want to 
say soberly and as a matter of professional honor that I do believe 
the dunes are of national importance as a scenic proposition. [Ap- 
plause.] They are really a world wonder, ranking with the geysers, 
the big trees, and the mountains. You who have dwelt so long in the 
presence of the Great Lakes that they have become commonplace 
need only a holiday from the city to realize anew their everlasting 
grandeur. How eagerly people from all parts of the country come to 
see this great revelation of the Infinite. The dunes offer one of the 
best and most convenient viewpoints from which to observe Lake 
Michigan and appreciate the grandeur of the w^hole great system. 
Again, the dunes are a world wonder because they are a dramatic 
presentation of the infinite power of wind. Think of the north wind, 
sweeping 300 miles down this lake and piling up that enormous area 
of sand! It is one of the greatest manifestations of nature's power 
between Niagara and the Rockies. 

Moreover, the dunes constitute one of the wildest types of scenery, 
and therefore have the highest value for recharging the batteries of 
the world's workers. Wilderness is absolutely * necessary to the 
continuance of American civilization. These dunes are not the only 
ones in the world, but they are practically unique. Mr, Jensen 
has been telling me that the dunes of the Old World are generally 
melanchoUy and depressing. In Denmark they sweep into the 
interior for 16 miles, destroying all vegetation. But the beauty of 
the Indiana dunes is of a cheerful, invigorating type. People do not 
visit them to watch the spectacular storms; they go there to bathe 
and boat and walk and enjoy the wonderfully varied vegetation. 
You remember Kipling's story about ^'Letting in the Jungle." It is 
an uncanny and fearsome revelation of nature's power; but the dunes 
tell a lovelier story — the story of wild and shifting sand, captured and 
brought to life, expressing its soul through many of nature's finest 
shrubs and fairest flowers. This subtle transformation of brute force 
has much to do with the charm of the dunes. No wonder that m.any 
residents of Chicago aim to spend 52 week ends a year at the dunes. 
There are no sand dunes in the Mississippi Valley that can compare 
with the Indiana dunes in scenic value. 

As to health value I consider the dunes the best week-end propo- 
sition available for the toiling millions of this region. It is also 
one of the best camping propositions for the American people. 
Think of the millions who have only two weeks in the year in which 
to get rested enough to continue efficiently their service to the Nation ! 
There is no way in which they can restore body and soul so effectually 
as by getting into actual contact with wildness. And they can get 
more wildness for less money in these dunes than in any other place 
that I know. [Applause.] One reason for this is that great crowds 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 79 

ran be handled with less expense to the Government on a soil 
that is perfectly drained by nature than on a soil that requires costly 
artificial drainage. 

By scenic and recreative standards therefore the dunes are of 
national park importance. What about accessibility? Hitherto 
we have counted that nothing in the scale of 100 points when 
judging the merits of a national park proposition. All of the 
western lands were remote. But they have had to be made accessible, 
and that has cost a lot of money. Park maintenance is a very big 
and increasing item. There seems to be no way to keep it down. 
But in this case the National Government would have a great deal 
of this expense already met and paid for in the purchase price -and 
cheap at that, too. 

eTust one word more, and that about the value of the dunes to the 
fine arts. Dunes, as you know, have been a favorite subject for 
painters and etchers, as Mr. Reed's pictures here suggest. The 
works of this great artist will be remembered a hundred years from 
now, when what we say and do are totally forgotten. Now, there is 
one thing that artists must have, and that is a chance to get back to 
nature. You remember that picture of Beethoven walking bare- 
headed in the wind, communing with nature, getting inspiration for 
his immortal symphonies. 

That suggests the one thing that the great artists of the Middle 
West, who are helping to build a new and better civilization, must 
have. The musicians must have it, the painters must have it, the 
poets, dramatists, sculptors, architects, and landscape architects must 
have it, or this civilization will become conventionalized, like that of 
Egypt and of vSyria, and will perish off the face of the earth. We 
must have those things that will help us create a national style of 
architecture, landscape gardening, and interior decoration in order 
to make perfect the homes of our people. To accomplish these 
things we must have one of these great original sources of nature. 
In my judgment we have in the dunes an infinite reservoir of primi- 
tive force for the making of better men and women. As a landscape 
architect I have no hesitancy in saying that they are by far the best 
proposition in the Middle West for a national park. 

Secretary Mather. Prof. Miller has brought out very clearly and 
logically the relations of (yongress to this national park project. I 
have tried to do it several times to-day, both in this meeting and in 
conversations with individuals and groups of interested persons with 
whom I have discussed the proposed park outside of this court room. 
It seems very hard for people to get the idea that Congress has the last 
word in a matter of this kind and that Congress must be impressed 
directly. I do not know of any better cime to enlist the interest of 
Members of Congress in this project than early in January when the 
national park conference is in se:sion in Washington. [Applause.] 



80 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

I would suggest that you send some of your best speakers down to that 
conference. I will give them an opportunity to present the merits of 
the proposed sand dunes national park. There will be a day devoted 
to the proposed national parks. Men like George Horace Lorimer, of 
the Saturday Evening Post, will be there to promote the creation of 
the Grand Canyon park. Parties will come from California to advo- 
cate the establishment of the greater Sequoia National Park, and there 
will be others there to speak in behalf of other projects. 

I would reiterate again before proceeding that the Interior De- 
partment has only been called to present certain facts to Congress 
relating to the sand dunes park project, and that it is not even called 
upon to make recommendations for congressional accion. The de- 
partment must not be expected .to promote this project, nor can I, 
^ consistently with m}^ duties, urge favorable action looking toward the 
establishment of che proposed park by Congress. A bill providing for 
the purchase and the formal dedication of the dunes as a national 
park must first be introduced by a Senator or Representative or both, 
thus presenting the matter definitely to Congress for consideration. 
The report of the Department of the Interior would then be used by 
the committee in charge of this bill. If further facts should be de- 
sired by these bodies, they would in all likelihood hold a hearing and 
invite public discussion of the project or call parties who are most 
familiar with the dune region and its natural features. 

As I have indicated, however, Congress has never appropriated 
money for the purchase of a national park, and it will be slow to make 
appropriations for this purpose. Outside subscriptions and dona- 
tions of land would accomplish the acquisition of the park much 
quicker, or Congress might be induced to appropriate for the purchase 
of a tract of land equal in size to that which might be acquired through 
private donation. 

Right in this connection I have been making quite a little study 
lately of the development of the Palisades Interstate Park in New 
York and New Jersey. This park includes within its boundaries a 
tract of 28,000 acres. Ten thousand acres were first given by Mrs. 
Harriman. Something like $8,000,000 has already been spent on that 
project, but a broader development is contemplated. To that end 
the commission is getting together private subscriptions of $2,500,000, 
aimed with which they intend to go to Albany and secure from the 
legislature, if possible, .another $2,500,000. This wa}" of promoting 
a park project, I think, is worthy of your consideracion. 

Miss Harriet Monroe is here now, and perhaps just a word from her 
on the value 'of the dunes from the artist's point of view will be ap- 
preciated. [Applause.] 

Miss Harriet Monroe. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen: 
Anything that I could say would be merely an emphasis of points 
which have been made before. There is one point, however, which I 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 81 

should like especially to emohasiz'^, and that is that this region has a 
right to a national park. I have traveled in a number of the western 
parks, and no one takes more pride in them than T — in the fact that 
these great scenic spaces have been set apart for the people forever. 
But there is no reason why national parks should be maintained ex- 
clusively as areas of great scenic magnificence. It seems to me that 
there should be parks in the different sections of this country to pre- 
serve representative areas of each particular region, and that the 
people of each of those regions have a right to some recreation place 
which is typical of their most beautiful scenery. 

I remember reading Harriet Martineau's description of a ride she 
took through the prairies of Illinois, from Chicago to Joliet, in the 
3^ear 1837, I think it* was, expressing her rapture over the beauties 
of the prairies. Well, there is very little prairie country left. Per- 
haps none of that original wild beauty that she found in 1837 exists 
to-day. But if such a spot could be found, I should think that there 
should be a national reservation of it for the benefit of the people 
forever, as a reminder of that beauty which existed in primitive days. 
And so nature has preserved for us the wildness of the dmies, and it 
seems reasonable and just that nature should be assisted in her preser- 
vation of them by the Government of the United States, for the bene- 
fit of the people of this region. The Government was induced, almost 
without knowing it, to begin this policy of national parks; at least, 
I think the Yellowstone was a grand exception when it was first set 
apart. But the number of them has increased, and should continue 
to increase; and no better begnming of that policy in this part of the 
country, the country immediately east of the Mississippi, could be 
instituted than the reservation of these wonderful dunes. 

Of course, I need not emphasize the beauty of the dunes; that has 
been sufficiently presented. But I do wish to emphasize their value 
as a place of recreation for the soul, as a place of spiritual inspira- 
tion, as a suggestion to the genius of artists of all kinds, including 
the literary artist — the poet. Those reasons are sufficient, if there 
were no others, for the preservation of this marvelous wilderness 
which is here at our gates. I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. I see we have Prof. L. F. Bennett, of Valpa- 
raiso, Ind., with us now. Prof. Bennett is a member of the Indiana 
Academy of Sciences, and we will be pleased to hear a few words 
from him at this time. 

Prof. L. F. Bennett. Mr. Secretary, ladies and gentlemen: I liave 
written down a few words, because I thought it would probably not 
be the correct thing, in view of the many experts in their particular 
fines w^ho have appeared here, to present the various scientific facts 
in regard to the desirability of establishing a national dmie park, for 
me to attempt to speak offhand. So I have simply come here to 
95781—17 6 



82 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

extend to the people of Chicago and vicinity the desire of the Indiana 
Academy of Sciences to cooperate in every possible way in the fui'ther- 
ance of this project. I think I am safe in saying that every member 
of the Indiana Academy, individually as well as collectively, is heart 
and soul behind the movement; and I am siu^e also that the whole 
academy, as an organization, is behind the movement. I have pre- 
pared here just a little statement of the viewpoint of the academ}', 
leaving purposely out of consideration the scientific viewpoint, which 
most of you might suppose we would emphasize, because, as I said 
a moment ago, I was sure that that feature would be emphasized b}' 
many who are much more able than myself. Tlie spring meeting 
of the members of the Indiana Academy of Sciences was held in the 
sand dune area of Porter Comity, Ind. Those who have never seen 
the dunes had no conception of the scenic value of this region, and 
all were of the opinion that it would be a national calamity if a part 
of the dime region was not preserved as a park for all of the people. 
At the business meeting of the academy a committee was appointed 
to present a request to the legislators of Indiana asking them to do 
all within their powder to preserve a portion of this wonderful area 
as a park. The academy believes that the Legislature of Indiana 
can aid the National Government to form a national park in the 
dmie region by helping to create a sentiment in favor of a park, and 
also to show to Indiana Representatives in Congress that the State 
looks favorably upon such a project. 

The academy recognizes that the lake front is and will continue 
to be valuable for harbor purposes for large manufacturing corpora- 
tions. It also maintains that it is not necessary for Indiana's pros- 
perity that all of this lake front be used for commercial purposes. 

The academy is of the opinion that recreation is just as necessary 
for the best development of a person as work. Recreation or pla}' 
relieves the monotony of the factory and office. It is somethhig to 
be looked forward to during the hours of the close confinement of the 
daily routine of the average wage earner. A time of recreation 
without a place to go means Little. Most people can not amuse 
themselves at home. Tliey must go somewhere, and if a wholesome 
place is not provided, our people as a class will frequent places that 
are not only harmful for the time being but the memory of which 
will give a distorted viewpoint which leads to all kinds of criminal 
acts. 

An opportunity has now arisen to provide a place within the reach 
of millions of people for a great playground. He would have a dull 
intellect indeed who would not enjoy a day's outing in the dunes. 
There is something here for everyone. The hills, the valleys, the 
steep slopes of sand and their difficult climbs, the various kinds of 
vegetation, the outlook over Lake Michigan, and the lands to the 
south furnish enjoyment to every visitor to the region. The air here 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 83 

is the purest, the chance to get away from every care is the best, 
110 noise, nothing to disturb or prevent a day of keenest pleasure. 
The academy knows and appreciates the value of this district from 
everv viewpoint of the scientist. The chance to study one phase of 
geology here is misurpassed and the botanist finds almost a paradise 
in the study of rare plant types. The student of birds has an oppor- 
tunity to see bird residents and bird visitors perhaps not equalled in 
any area of like size in North America. The academy does not con- 
sider the present only, but it is thinking of the great future of this 
part of the United States. Already several millions of people live 
within a few miles of the southern shore of Lake Michigan, and within 
the present century, yes within the lives of the present generation, 
this part of the United States will be one of the most densely popu- 
lated parts of the whole country. Lands are rapidly becoming more 
valuable and the chances to procure a national playground are fast 
disappearing. The great national parks are now inaccessible to the 
masses of the people because of distance. The proposed park in the 
dunes region will supply a need to the people of central United 
States. The Academy of Science of Indiana believes that the United 
States Government owes to the people of the present and to the boys 
and girls and men and women of the centuries to come to obtain 
before it is too late this most interesting and unique land area, the 
dunes of Indiana, and to preserve it for aU time as a national park. 
I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretar}" Mather. Our time is getting very short, but I see Mr. 
A. F. Knotts, ex-mayor of Gary, and we must have a few words from 
him. Mr. Knotts has been one of the leaders in this movement to 
preserve the sand dunes, and has had much to do with the organi- 
zation of the National Dunes Park Association. 

Mr. A. F. Knotts, of Gary, Ind. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentle- 
men : I asked Mr. Dorr to let me speak last, and I understood there 
were to be some other speakers. I thought I would like to speak last 
so as to try to cover any particular points that might be omitted. 

I have the honor of having been elected provisional chairman of the 
National Dunes Park Association. That association is now com- 
posed largely of Lake County, Ind., and Chicago people. During this 
last summer, I have given a great deal of time and thought in trying 
to find out the sentiment of the people generally upon this question; 
and I fomid, Mr. Secretary, that the people not only of Cook County, 
111., and Indiana, are interested in this question, but the people of 
other localities as well. 

I have received many letters from Pennsylvania, New York, Massa- 
chusetts, and in fact, from all over the country, asking what could 
be done to help preserve the dunes. Now, in the first place, I have 
had some little experience" along these lines; and, if you will excuse 
me for touching upon my own experience, simply as an illustration, 
I will undertake to give you a part of it. 



84 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

For many, many years, I lived in Hammond, Ind., and I know 
of the growth of the industrial centers of Hammond, Whiting, East 
Chicago, Indiana Harbor, Gary, and other places in the Calumet 
region. I had the pleasure and responsibility of buying the land 
for Gary, 12,000 acres, and planning and laying out the town of 
Gary. I did not do the physical work, you understand, but I did 
most of the mental work; and I have seen this region from South 
Chicago, east, grow from a wilderness to a great industrial commu- 
nity. Now, if there could be opposition to this movement that we 
have gathered here to further, it must come from people who want 
to locate plants of one sort or another on the lake's shore, because 
everybody concedes the beauty, the educational importance, the 
natural value, and the desirability of preserving the dunes. Now, 
-are there any objections to it? I have heard but very little; and 
those who have been opposing it have opposed it because they say 
they want it for industrial purposes. 

Now, did you ever think of the fact that out of all the industries 
in Chicago, only one is on the lake front ? Just one. That is the 
United States steel plant at South Chicago. Of all the industries 
at Hammond, not one is on the lake. Of all the industries at Indiana 
Harbor, only one is on the lake. Of all the industries at Whiting 
and East Chicago, there is not one on the lake. Of aU the industries 
at Gary, there is only one on the lake. Then what is it that occupies 
Lake Michigan frontage ? It is not industries, it is railroads, with 
their yards, their piles of coal, coke, and all that sort of thing. Only 
2^ miles of the 750 miles of Lake Michigan frontage is occupied by 
industries. But you who live in Chicago know how much frontage 
a railroad can occupy. Illinois Central took up nearly all of the 
lake frontage in Chicago for years and years, and you had to go 
outside of that railroad and fill in and build most of the shore line 
you now have. The Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railroad started in 
at South Chicago about where the Illinois Central left off and bars 
the lake for miles and uses the shore for a dumping ground for slag 
and other refuse. 

It was said that 7 miles of lake frontage is taken up in Gary by 
industries. Six miles of it is taken up by railroad yards and 1 mile 
by industries. No industry needs lake frontage, unless it wants to 
ship ore, and there are only two such industries that could possibly 
want any lake frontage. One would be the LMted States armor- 
plate plant, which I have been trying to locate down this side of 
the dunes. I do not want it to go over into the dunes too far, but 
down this side of them. That would be one, because it would want 
to ship ore. Then there is another, perhaps, and that would be a 
combination opposed to the United States Steel Co. That is, if 
they could buy some ore land up in the Northwest, if they can find 
some that the United States Steel Co. does not now own. But the 



PROPOSED SAXD DUNES XATIONAL PARK. 85 

bridge plant, the tin-plate plant, the coke ovens, and all the other 
plants in Gary, except the smelting furnaces, do not need lake front- 
age. Lake shipping is growing less instead of greater. There used 
to be a lumber yard in Michigan City, but there is nothing there now 
on the lake front. Railroads take up a lot of frontage at Michigan 
City just as they do everywhere else. We have about 26 or 27 miles 
of lake frontage in Indiana still unoccupied. Now, if we give to 
industries 6 or 7 miles, that would supply a location for six or seven 
Garys, and then we would have 20 miles left for a national park. 

Now, this national park is not to be a playground for scientists, 
botanists, geologists, zoologists, artists, and nature lovers only, 
but from an industrial standpoint, it is to mean something to the 
common people, the workers. The people who work, who live over 
on the west side here in Chicago, who never see the lake, the people 
who live in Hammond, in East Chicago, in Whiting, in Indiana 
Harbor, in Gary, and can not get to the lake, people who work 
364 days in the year and would like to have at least onq day in the 
year to get to the lake, they can not get there now. There is no 
place through which they can get to the lake, except through small 
municipal parks, and in these, along the paths, they have signs 
reading '^Keep off the grass." Now, the people want a place where 
they can go and walk on the grass, and see the trees, and get close 
to nature, and get not onl}^ recreation, but recuperation, so that they 
will have some place for themselves, a chance to get to and stay with 
the lake and get acquainted with it. Four hundred and fifty thou- 
sand Chicago people went in one day last summer to the lake. They 
spent one, two, or three hours, perhaps, there, and then had to go 
back to the west side, or wherever they lived, and sleep in tenement 
houses, perhaps, a great many of them, where it was uncomfortable, 
unpleasant, and hot. Do you think they can get any recuperation 
out of that ? Any invigoration to go ahead and carry on their work ? 
We want a place where these people can go and come freely, where 
they can have cottages, where they can take their wives and chil- 
dren, and enjoy themselves. In short, we want a park, and we want 
it on Lake Michigan, and we want it between the railroads and the 
lake, and where we do not need the land for industries. 

No one has located more industries in the Calumet region than I 
have. I located 11 while 1 was mayor of the city of Hammond, and 
I was instrumental, to some extent, at least, in locating Gary. But 
I see the necessity of locating something else there beside industries. 
[Applause.] And the people who want to locate industries aU the 
time, and exploit labor all the time, had better think a little about 
the welfare of the laborer. They ought once in a while to think a 
little about locating something else. 

You know, if we ever have an enemy it must be either an internal 
or an external enemy. Now, 1 am not half as afraid of foreign ene- 



86 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

mies, such as England, France, or Germany, as I am afraid of our 
own people. Whenever we get to oppressing them too hard, when- 
ever we make them work too hard, whenever we deprive them of too 
much, then there is discontent, and when there is discontent, no one 
can tell how serious the outcome may be. Sometimes it ends in 
revolution. The only reason we have not had revolutions in this 
country is because we have had great areas of unoccupied land, great 
forests, and great stretches of undeveloped country. Nevertheless, 
the people who think so much of industries had better begin to think 
of something else along with these industries. 

Now, we have more than 5,000,000 people within 100 miles of this 
proposed park, and all within easy access to this point. Some one 
has suggested that it would be argued that for Congress to purchase 
'a national park would establish a bad precedent. Well, we had 
better stop dredging some of the little old creeks and rivers, where 
the sand washes in the next day after we dredge it out, and put some 
of our money in parks. We dredged out your old Chicago River, 
and it does not do you much good except as a sewer. There is not 
much commerce on the Chicago River. There is not much com- 
merce on the Calumet River. It is getting less and less every day. 
And so we ought, instead of spending so much of our money that 
way, to spend some of it on national parks. The people of the 
United States do not get close enough in contact with the United 
States Government. We are taxed, and I myself have to pay a part 
of it — not much of it — but I do not know of a thing that Uncle Sam 
is doing for me, and he is doing less, possibly, for many other people. 
Take this post office building here which we are now in; I under- 
stand that the postal department pays the expenses of it, so Uncle 
Sam does not give us any of our tax back for this purpose. As far 
as that is concerned, he gives us but very little. 

The city of Chicago is now asking for a bond issue of four and a 
half million dollars to get a few playgrounds and a few himdred feet 
of Lake Michigan beach. Why, that money, that four and a half 
million dollars, would buy all the land from Dunes Park to Michigan 
City. [Laughter and applause.] And instead of having 100 yards 
of bathing beach for the poor children and mothers, we would have 
20 miles of it, and it would all belong to Uncle Sam. That is the 
way it should be, too. We do not want it to belong to any munici- 
pality; we do not want it to belong to any State, but we want it to 
belong to the United States, so that anyone who drives along there 
or comes there will know what his privileges are in that park, and 
know that he will not be interfered with by some petty local politi- 
cian. So I say, there is this great social question. Now, just a 
word about the price of the land. If you let the s})eculators get 
options on this land, and have no way to head them off, you will 
have to pay a thousand dollars an acre, perhaps, because they have 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 87 

been there ever since we have been talking about this park proposi- 
tion trying to get options. Some of them say they are trying to get 
these options for industries, but there are no industries that want to 
go down there. I would know it if there were any industries that 
wanted to locate there. There has not been an industry located in 
this part of Indiana for 20 years but what I knew about it before it 
was located. We have been trying to get industries, but no indus- 
tries are anxious to come; and if they did come, they would go over 
into Mr. Bowser's territory, as it is located on the trunk lines. They 
would go to Chesterton, Porter, Crisman, and other places that are 
on trunk lines, and not on the lake front. 

Many good and sufficient reasons have been given why the dunes 
should be saved, many why a national park should be secured, many 
others readily suggest themselves to my mind. The real question 
is how ? 

We have an organization', the national dunes park organization, 
and we are now taking steps to incorporate it. We expect to have 
a larger organization, and we want all the people who are here now, 
and all who have been here, and all who are interested, to join our 
association. In order to succeed in this work we must have members 
and weight behind it, and we expect to succeed. We expect to 
secure this park. If Uncle Sam does not buy it for us, we expect to 
try to get it in some other way; but we say that Uncle Sam ought to 
buy it for the people of this congested district. Some one has said 
that there has not been any opposition. I understood that there was 
some opposition, but if there is any opposition, I do not ki;iow how 
it could arise unless from the idea of speculation only. If we under- 
take to get a national park, no land speculation should be allowed. 
We should have a bill by which we could condemn this land. If it 
was condemned, the owners would get what their land is worth and 
no more, which in my opinion would not exceed $200 an acre on an 
average. 

Secretary Mather. There might be difficulties in the way of con- 
demnation by the Federal Government. The State, perhaps, 
would have the right of condemnation, but not the Federal Govern- 
ment. 

Mr. Knotts. I imderstand the United States Government con- 
demned the famous Gettysburg battle ground in Pennsylvania and 
the battle field of Chickamauga. 

Secretary Mather. That possibly was procured by State action. 

Mr. Knotts. It may be, but some one told me the other day, 
who came from Pennsylvania, that when some of the farmers living 
on the land, out of which the United States Government wished to 
make a park at Gett3^sburg, began to tear down some old house or 
barn or to cut down some old tree or destroy some old landmark, 
they were immediately served with a notice of condemnation pro- 



88 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

ceedings. Anyway, if there is not now a way, we ought to have a 
way of condemning, so that these speculators could not be speculat- 
ing on the value of this land. Now, I think that will be all I wish 
to say, unless there is some opposition. Thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. Mr. Knotts, in his very able address, brought 
out the point that in developing industries we have got to consider 
carefully not only the location of our factories from the economic 
point of view, but we have also got to establish them where there will 
be recreational opportunities for their employees. I want to empha- 
size this point. It is a principle that is becoming more and more 
generally accepted that the environment of the workingman is not 
what it should be if he and his family are not afforded the chance to 
play in the out of doors, 

' Now, there are just one or two other speakers, and we are going to 
hear a few words first from Miss Lena M. McCauley, representing the 
Chicago Horticultural Society. [Applause.] 

Miss Lena M. McCauley. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, I 
have been announced as representing the Horticultural Society of 
Chicago and I am also secretary of the conservation council, a body 
of delegates from 12 influential associations of men and women num- 
bering a membership of not less than 4,000 persons active for the 
public welfare. The conservation of a section of the dunes on the 
east coast of Lake Michigan, and their value to the country at large 
as a national park has been given serious consideration in the conser- 
vation council since its organization two years ago. No thoughtful 
person can look unmoved upon the growth of cities and the crowding 
of homes in the industrial centers which herd men, women, and chil- 
dren together, robbing them of the fresh air and sunshine and freedom 
of the earth on which they were born. It wiU not be long until one 
vast metropolis of many millions will extend around the head of 
Lake Michigan, and the natural beauty of the region be destroyed 
altogether. Mr. Mather has said that in the final summing up of this 
hearing only cold facts will bear weight. These cold facts stated by 
the scientific authorities this morning in their plea for the conservation 
of the dunes as a national park, considered the botanical, geological, 
and unique resources that make the dunes of Lake Michigan one of 
the wonders of the world. And, secondly, there may be an argument 
in the fact that there is no national park in the Middle West within 
reach of this great population which can never journey far from its 
labors and that it is but just to save this natural forest preserve with 
its flora and fauna for their recreation. 

But beyond all these it seems to me, as I am sure it niust seem 
to all thinking people, that there are spiritual considerations which 
have a weight as precious as material values, and one of these spir- 
itual birthrights is the inalienable right of every human being to 
walk abroad in God's country and to enjoy some portion of it. At 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 89 

the soul of the dedication of every national park in the land is a 
recognition of the heritage of the Nation in playgrounds of natural 
country. It is a crime for cities and industrial enterprises to rob 
the people of their privileges, and yet the hordes of workers and 
increasing mills and factories creeping along the shores of this great 
inland sea are taking away the freedom of the skies and the asso- 
ciation with and inspiration of birds, flowers, and trees. Unless 
the Nation possesses the dunes, in a few years a world wonder will 
be destroyed and the people's playground taken from them. There- 
fore the conservation council representing the Wild Flower Preserva- 
tion Society of America, the Chicago and Riverside Chapters, the 
Audubon Society of Illinois, the Geographic Society, the Horticul- 
tural Society, the Outdoor Art League, the Municipal Art League 
of Chicago, the Prairie Ciub, the Arche Club, the Ridge Woman's 
Club, the West End Woman's Club, and the Second District Women's 
Clubs of the Illinois State Federation of Women's Clubs, and the 
Friends of Our Native Landscape cooperating with all who have 
spoken to-day, make a plea for the conservation of the dunes of 
Indiana as a national park and through the conservation of their 
resources the conservation of human life adjacent to the region. 

A nation can not have prosperity and contentment nor indus- 
tries flourish unless they provide for the health and happiness of 
their workers. A gift of the Nation to its citizens increases loyalty. 
In this open country of the dunes lies an opportunity for the Middle 
West of the United States, and since God has made it a unique spot 
of the earth in a natural way, why should not men help to keep it 
in the interests of the life, liberty, and refreshment of the people 
who dwell around it? I thank you. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. Mr. Honore J. Jaxon, representing the Public 
Ownership League, is here and we wiU be glad to have a few words 
from him at this time. [Applause.] 

Mr. HoxoRE J. Jaxon. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, 
the Public Ownership League is the public service mouthpiece 
of the Chicago Federation of Labor, representing 300,000 organized 
workingmen of this city. They are the people who have not even 
gotten a two weeks' vacation or a one week's vacation, but they intend 
to have vacations in the future, and they want a place where they 
can spend them. For 30 years we have been cut off from the lake 
front by railroad corporations, private hotels, private interests, etc., 
and our voice has been suppressed and our protest has not been 
heard. Thanks to you, Mr. Secretary, for giving us leave to pnnt. 
Our protest will at least be placed in the printed records, where it 
may be read. I shall not insult the opinion of the Chicago Federa- 
tion of Labor in regard to this matter by trying to state it to you in 
two or three minutes. I sunply desire to read certain resolutions, 
which I will file with you as a part of your record. 



90 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

[Adopted at regular meeting of the Public Owersb.ip League of Cook County, held Sunday, Sept. 20, 

1916.] 

Whereas the natural playground and remarkable botanical exhibit known as the 
sand-dune country on the south shore of Lake Michigan is in danger of being absorbed 
and destroyed by invading industries, whose factories have no special advantage to 
gain from location on the lake front, while their presence there would work incal- 
culable injury to public health and civic progress; and 

Whereas various public-spirited bodies are now uniting their efforts in an endeavor 
to save this region for the use and recreation of all the people, and to that end are 
petitioning the Federal authorities of the United States to set the region apart as a 
national park; and 

Whereas in anticipation of the success of this praiseworthy movement, a number 
of land speculators are endeavoring to secure options on various privately owned 
tracts comprising the region in question, with a view to demanding exorbitant prices 
for their equities when the National Government shall commence to move in the 
matter; and 

Whereas this attempt to levy private tribute upon a desirable public enterprise 
will defeat its own end if the condemnation juries that will eventually be called upon 
to determine the real value of these tracts can be presented with satisfactory e\idence 
that a strong public agitation had been made for the nationalization of these lands; 
that the acquiring of these options had been undertaken \^dth full knowledge of that 
agitation and with a view to deriving an unjust and selfish profit therefrom; and that 
any alleged increase in these land values, based upon the inequitable and fictitious 
demand thus created, can not rightfully be allowed to work to the profit of those 
perpetrating this wrong; be it therefore 

Resolved, That partly for the general purpose of furthering the speedy realization 
of the proposed creation of the dune country into a national park and playground of 
the people, and partly for the specific purpose of helping to make the above-stated 
necessary record of widespread knowledge of the intention and desire of the people 
and Government of the United States to acquire these lands for public purposes, the 
Public Ownership League of Cook County declares its insistent approval of the move- 
ment for the nationalization of the dune country along the shore of Lake Michigan, 
and instructs its officers to make known its wishes in this matter to the proper depart- 
ments of the United States Government; and be it further 

Resolved, That the chairman is authorized and instructed to appoint a committee 

of three, who shall attend the prospective public hearing on the subject in Cliicago 

before the Secretary of the Interior, and shall there present the views and wishes of 

this league as hereinbefore outlined. 

HoNORE J. Jaxon. 

The presentation of our views, Mr. Secretary, shall be submitted 
to you in a few days, we having your leave to print. I would like 
also to say that I am secretary of the League in Defense of Prepared- 
ness, and there are certain very important military considerations 
involved in this proposition, which should not be left out of the argu- 
ment before the Senate; and I would like leave to submit those also. 

Secretary Mather. We would be glad to have you do this. 

Mr. Jaxon. I simply want to say that the federation of labor 
has passed resolutions unanimously indorsing this. 

Secretary Mather. I am glad to hear it. Now we will have just 
a word from Mrs. Thomas Meek Butler, representing the Daughters 
of Indiana Society of Chicago. [Applause.] 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. , 91 

Mrs. Thomas Meek Butler. Mr. Secretary, ladies, and gentlemen, 
as a representative of the society known as the Daughters of Indiana, 
of Chicago, 111., I wish to voice the desire of our society to see the 
Federal Government make a national park of the sand dunes along 
the shores of Lake Michigan in the northern part of the State of 
Indiana and m the southern part of the State of Michigan. 

That the sand dunes possess sufficient scenic and scientific values 
to justify their conversion into a national park is satisfactorily 
settled, one would think, by the state-wide effort of the citizens of 
the State of Indiana through their state park commission to pur- 
chase the dunes and to convert them into a state park. 

Owing to the fact that several scenic spots are being contemplated 
by such commission, and for the reason that the commission is 
experiencing some difficulty in raising the funds sufficient to pur- 
chase all of the scenic spots contemplated, it is apparent that, 
unless the Federal Government assists, some of these primeval 
scenic places will soon be destroyed by the onward sweep of commerce 
and industry. If the Federal Government is to render any assistance 
at all in the project of saving these few remaining natural wonders 
that are located in this part of the United States, the geographical 
location of the sand dunes dictates that they should be placed under 
her care. The people of the State of Indiana ask Uncle Sam to 
assist them in an undertaking that is too great for thera alone and 
that is for the benefit of the Nation. [Applause.] 

Secretary Mather. Mr. Orpheus M. Schantz represents an organ- 
ization which has large and influential branches in every state in the 
Union. He will address the hearing as the president of the Illinois 
Audubon Society. 

Mr. Orpheus M. Schantz. After all that has been said in favor of 
creating a national park of the Indiana dune region by educators, 
artists, naturalists, and the many other friends of the proposition, there 
still remains a very vital economic reason which has been scarcely 
referred to, that of bird conservation and protection. 

The Mississippi Valley each spring and autumn, is the favorite 
route for the migration of countless thousands of both land and water 
birds. 

Nowhere on the North American Continent, and probably nowhere 
else in the world does there take place a greater movement of bird 
life than in the region tributary to the dunes. Thirty years ago, when 
the region south and east of the city of Chicago was still a vast 
unconimercialized and uninhabited area, this region was a paradise 
for the sportsman and market . hunter. Calumet Lake, Wolf Lake, 
the Big Calumet and the Little Calumet Rivers and all the streams 
and ponds of the region were alive with waterfowl. 

To-day much of this wonderful bird life is gone never to return, 
and where once could be seen thousands of ducks, geese, and other 



92 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

waterfowl, small flocks of game birds are a novel sight, While the 
larger land birds have never been in as great numbers as the water 
birds they were once very plentiful in the dune region and its out- 
skirts. Rufl^ed grouse, quail, and prairie chickens have been driven 
out by the ruthless hunter. 

Nature has been very kind to the dunes in providing a peculiarly 
favorable climate for the propagation of both plant and bird life. 
The temperatures are never extreme either summer or winter, and 
except on the exposed lake beach the winds are also very moderate. 

The abundance of fruit-bearing plants in the dunes make them 
particularly attractive to the thousands of smaller migratory birds 
that are so important a factor in the destruction of injurious insects. 
The Department of Agriculture at Washington, and those of the 
- great States of Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, are continually issu- 
ing bulletins urging bird conservation, and are instructing farmers and 
fruijb growers as to the incalculable value of our native birds as 
checks on injurious insects and weeds. 

In connection with this education the creation of bird havens is 
urged wherever possible, to be made as attractive and safe as nec- 
essary for the reestablishment of many of our fast disappearing birds. 

The present game laws in Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois are no 
doubt broad enough to protect the birds, if enforced. The enforce- 
ment of game laws in many communities is, however, a dead letter, 
and the selling of hunting licenses a very profitable and jealously 
guarded part of political patronage. 

The creation of a forest preserve under Federal supervision auto- 
matically prohibits shooting in the territory set aside, and the Illi- 
nois Audubon Society realizes that the creation of a national forest 
reserve in the dunes would go further to protect and conserve bird 
life at the head of Lake Michigan than all the legislation enacted by 
the individual States for that purpose. 

It has been demonstrated that in a remarkably short time wild 
life recognizes protection. The establishment of a forest reserve in 
the dunes would unquestionably restore much of the bird life that 
under present conditions is falling an easy prey to the lawless shooter 
with his pump gun and other destroying devices. 

The list of birds regularly visiting the area comprising the dunes 
and the adjacent regions is a very large one — well over 300 varieties; 
and the list is often swelled by wandering visitors who are attracted 
by the wonderful food supply, and the favorable climatic conditions. 

Within the memory of many of us the passenger pigeon has been 
entirely exterminated, a victim to the greed and thoughtlessness of the 
market hunter. The wild turkey, the noblest game bird of America, 
is no longer to be found where it once was plentiful, and only sur- 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 93 

vives in a few widely separated localities far from densely populated 
settlements. The Canada goose only survives because of its keen 
intelligence and great wariness. 

Many of the highly prized wild ducks are only a pitiful remnant 
compared with their former enormous numbers. 

Even birds that were never sought for food have been slaughtered 
almost to the point of extermination for their plumage. 

While there have been set aside vast bird havens in the South and 
West and on the Atlantic seaboard for the protection of our larger 
water fowl, there is no large area in the Middle West or Mississippi 
Valley where the marvelous throng of land birds whose annual 
migrations are among the most wonderful phenomena of nature can 
find secure resting and feeding places while passing through our 
region. 

Bird study is fast becoming a recognized and important part of- the 
nature study in our primary and advanced education. Adults are 
becoming more and more interested in bird study as a recreation. 
Constantly increasing demands are being made for illustrated lectures 
on birds and their economic value. 

At the head of Lake Michigan, where has grown up one of the 
greatest centers of population in the world, composed of many peo- 
ples who are to become the greatest factor in the industrial life of the 
Middle West, at almost the center of population of the United States, 
are we not entitled to this breathing spot and out-of-door school of 
nature for the children and adults of to-day and the future, in which 
can be studied the botany, geology, ornithology, and the history of 
this great region whose physical beginnings are inseparably Unked 
with the glacial period of America, and whose history goes back to 
the time of La Salle, Marquette, and Joliet? 

Give to us and the birds the sand dunes of Indiana as a place of 
peace, rest, recreation, and national protection where we may go to 
enjoy the things that are the inherent right of both the wild life and 
the human population; where we can be invigorated by the clean 
north wind sweeping down across over 300 miles of Lake Michigan, 
and where we may watch the sun rise and set without a veil of dust 
and smoke to hide its glory. (Applause.) 

vSecretary Mather. Prof. Elliot R. Downing has submitted a short 
paper on the'^xVnimal Life of the Dunes," which will be read into 
the record at this point. Mr. Downing is the editor of Nature-Study 
Review, secretary of American Nature-Study Society, and professor 
in the school of education of the University of Chicago. 

Animal Life of the Dunes, by Prof, Elliot R. Downing. 

This region is exceedingly interesting to the animal lover because it 
is an extensive stretch of wild country with plenty of cover in which 
the sinall animals find shelter; it is consequently also the haunt of 



94 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

some of the larger predaceous animals now nearly extinct elsewhere 
hereabouts. In the last five years I have found the gray timber wolf 
there once, foxes several times, raccoons, porcupines, rattlesnakes, and 
nearly every year the bald eagle has been seen nesting somewhere in 
the region. With thorough protection and some supervision the 
more desirable of such rare animals might become fairly abundant 
again, even thus close to the city. 

Just as the flora of the dunes is a curious mixture of southern and 
northern species, like the cactus and arbutus, that grow side by side, 
so there are found animals there as neigh])ors that represent the 
desert conditions of the Southwest and the pine barrens of the North. 
Such representatives of usually widely separate faunas are the six- 
lined lizard that runs to cover with such celerity and the ruffed grouse 
that as a rule only nests in the pine forests several hundred miles 
farther north. Yet both these animals are c^uite common in the 
dunes. 

Because the plant life of the region is so varied, a mingling of south- 
ern and northern forms, there would be expected many unusual 
animals that would follow the food plants, and such expectations are 
realized. Here where pines, spruces, and tamaracks are found 
together with the blueberry, prince's pine, shinleaf, wintergreen, 
pitcher plants, orchids, and sphagnum, the whole assemblage of trees, 
flowering plants and spore bearers that one would encounter on the 
shores of Lake Superior; you also find a group of animals naturally 
foreign to this latitude but brought here by plants they inhabit. 
The varying hare, porcupine, and chipmunk are here; such birds as 
the wood pewee and red eyed vireo nest in the mixed evergreen and 
birch thickets;, the Pickering tree frog peeps his love song: and 
numerous wood-boring beetles and bark tunnelers that infest only 
the conifers are found abundantly; even the mosquitoes and midges 
that are peculiar to the north woods are present to add a character- 
istic northern pungency to our dunes. 

Because of the congenial cover afforded by the evergreen thickets 
and the abundant food, many birds are found during the spring and 
fall migrations, staying for days and weeks in the dunes that would 
not loiter at all in the Chicago region were it not for the attractions of 
this particular section. Such are the raven, cross-bills, kinglets, 
black- thro a ted green and pine warblers. So, too, the many lakes 
and swamps of the region, lying in the depressions between the sand 
ridges, are ideal shelters for the waterfowl on their way to or from 
the extensive marshes that lie near to the south. Wild geese, ducks of 
all sorts, loons, coots, gallinules, rails, and a variety of snipes are all 
annual visitors and some of them regular residents. 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 95 

But the dunes are not alone valuable because they afford such a 
variety of annnals but because they illustrate so admirably many 
phases of animal distribution. In few regions can even the begin- 
ning student appreciate so readily the age of the several sections. 
When the method of the dune formation is understood, it is evident 
that those dunes and the inclosed ponds that are near the lake are the 
more recent and that those farther inland are the older ones, even 
back to those that were formed by old Lake Chicago in the days 
immediately following the glacial retreat. In a single day's collect- 
ing, students can gather and identify enough material to make it 
apparent that there' is a real succession of animal life from the younger 
to the older dunes and ponds. The tiger beetles well illustrate the 
point. The copper colored tiger is found along the water margin at 
the lake shore. The white tiger is back where the grasses begin to 
bind the sands and where the cottonwoods are starting growth. The 
giant tiger comes next in the region of jack pines. On the older dunes 
where Norway and white pines stand is found the bronze tiger, while 
the green tiger is still farther back, on the dunes where white oak and 
hickory are predominant. The same zonation of animal life is indi- 
cated in the swales by the different species of grasshoppers as Han- 
cock has shown in his delightful ^^ Nature Sketches in Temperate 
America," a book that is in no small measure a product of the dunes; 
or again by the kinds of fish or of snails in the pools as SheKord points 
out in his ''Animal Communities in Temperate America," another 
volume that was conceived of the dunes. 

May I add my testimony to the value of the dunes from the stand- 
point of recreation. I have slept out there every month from April 
to October Avithout tent or blanket, under the stars. I have camped 
there with my family. Last August I think there was scarcely a 50- 
foot frontage on the lake for 2 miles east of Millers without its tent 
and camping party. 

I urge the value of the dunes as an intellectual asset. Education in 
these days of unparaUed scientific achievement is tr3nng hard to drill 
pupils (and we never cease to be such) in the scientific method of 
thinking, which, briefly stated, is thinking to correct conclusions on 
the basis of ones own observations or of easily verified facts. Sense 
education as an essential to correct observation has never been so 
strongly emphasized. Mankind spent ages in a struggle that sharp- 
ened its senses. It behooves man still to go often to nature to keep 
his senses keen for such sensory keenness is still the basis of success. 
Mechanic, tradesmen, farmer, and professional man base all their 
essential judgments of daily life on what they see and feel and hear. 
And these same sense impressions are the basis of aU our ideas. Such 
a wonderful d^aiamic region as the dunes, one of the real wonders of 
America, is a valuable school for the thousands that go to it even 
casuaUy. 



96 PROPOSED SAKD DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

Finally, may we remember that all the great spiritual leaders have 
been men who often went apart into nature to renew their spirits. 
The prophets, the poets, the seers have been products of the open 
places. Nations, too, that have been cradled in mountain fast- 
nesses or in the midst of nature's more quiet beauties have seemed to 
reflect the character of their surroundings. To-day one people of 
Europe is islanded in the midst of the great conflict, a people whose 
bravery and right to independence has never been seriously ques- 
tioned. The Swiss are sturdy, high-minded impatient of restraint, 
qualities that seem bred of their mountain fastnesses. He who has 
threaded his way among the island gems of the Aegean, caught en- 
chanting glimpses of emerald shores along amethystine seas, roamed 
the velvet hills bathed in the glow of a Grecian sunset, realizes that 
any people reared in such environment and ^ ^sensitive to the beauty 
everywhere revealed" must be stimulated to intellectual leadership 
and artistic expression. It is a splendid thing for Chicago, destined 
to commercial superiortiy, to have at its very door such an enticing 
land of varied beauty and legendary glamour to serve as a spiritual 
stimulus to sensitive souls. It may weU insure a spiritual leadership 
that is more to be desired and longer remembered in the hearts of 
mankind than commercial greatness. 

Secretary Mather. I also want to read into the record at this 
point a letter, dated October 28, from Mr. Enos A. MiUs, the distin- 
guished naturalist and author of Estes Park, Colo. This is what he 
has to say with reference to the proposed park. 

I thank you for information concerning the dunes national park project. I regret 
that I can not be present at this hearing. 

I am most heartily in favor of the dunes being made a national park- If it is allow- 
able for you to do so, I wish you would so place me on record. 

I thank you for letting me know concerning this hearing. 

Mr. H. F. Fuller has requested me to state that the sand dunes 
national park project is indorsed by the Alden Kindred of America 
and by the State Microscopical Society. Mr. Fuller is historian of 
the Alden Kindred of America and is curator of the State Microscopi- 
cal Society. [Applause.] 

Mr. William H. Cox, representing the Pottawatomie Indians, is the 
next speaker. [Applause.] 

Mr. William H. Cox. Mr. Secretary, ladies and gentlemen: I rep- 
resent the Pottawatomie Indians. They claim ownership of aU the 
accretions, all the filled-in lands, and all the sand dunes, outside of 
any cession ever made to the United States by the Indian tribes, 
since the United States relinquished all claims to the Indians, on all 
lands northwest of the river Ohio, east of the Mississippi, and east- 
wardly to the boundary line agreed on between Great Britain and the 
United States, in their peace treaty of 1783. The Indians have never 
parted with their right to this land — no tribe of Indians. The United 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 97 

States made 81 purchases from the Indians, including 5,000,000 acres, 
in larger and smaller areas of territory, and secured from the Indians 
the right for the citizens of the United States to run their boats on 
the waters of Lake Michigan, free of charge. That is all the rights 
they got. The Government never reserved any rights, but as a mat- 
ter of consideration, for the Indians relinquishing aU their claims 
south of the river Ohio, the Government said, ''We wiU relinquish 
all our rights to the land northwest of the river Ohio, east of the 
Mississippi, and eastwardly to the boundary line agreed on between 
Great Britain and the United States in their peace treaty of 1783." 
Now, the Government, which never bought that land of the Indians, 
refuses to buy that portion of the lake shore, but proposes to aUow 
railroads to go to work and appropriate it, and permit anybody and 
everybody to take the Indians' land, and occupy it, and get the full 
benefit of it. 

Secretary Mather. Of course, we are glad to hear from you, but 
what you are saying now is not at aU germane to the subject under 
discussion. 

Mr. Cox. I will just say, then, that the Indians are in favor of 
this park, providing that the title is procured as the law provides, 
from the rightful owners of the property. 

Secretary Mather. I have here, as an exhibit, a cactus that was 
gathered at the dunes last May. The lady who sent it in has nurtured 
it in her garden. It is just a sample of the very interesting botanical 
features of the dunes. Now, this hearing will be adjourned. I ex- 
pect to spend to-morrow in the dunes, making a personal study of 
their physical characteristics. 

(Thereupon the hearing was adjourned.) 

95781—17 7 



APPEN^DIX B. 



MISCELLANEOUS LETTERS, IIES0LTJT;I0K'S, AND OTHER UQCTJ- 
MENTS INDORSING THE SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK PROJECT. 
ALSO COPIES OF THE ACT OF AUGUST 25,, 1916, PROVIDINGE FOK 
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, AND THE 
ACT OF JUNE 8, 1906, PROVIDING FOR THE PRESERVATION. OF 
AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



The Dunes of Northern Indiana, by Jens Jensen. 

The world is full of things that add to human intellect and' life. 

Perhaps least consideration and least appreciation is gi'ren to* 
those things that form an interesting part of Mother Earth herself. 

We give first consideration, it seems, to things that hare- a com- 
mercial value; in other words, man-made things. The fine arts are 
of the man-made variety; but the inspiration or source from which 
they spring is found in the great outdoors. All art has its root 
in the primitive, unadulterated beauty made by the hand of the 
Great Master. Without this source creative art would be impossible. 

The dunes of northern Indiana is one of the great expressions 
of wild beauty in our country. They are the greatest of nature's 
expressions of this beauty in the I^Iiddle West and as a type of land- 
scape they are unequaled anywhere in the world. They are to us 
what the Adirondacks and the Catskills are to our eastern and the 
Rocky Mountains to our western friends. Their beauty of wildness 
and romance must be measured by comparison with, the level plains 
of the Middle West. They are less severe and less melancholy 
perhaps than the dune countries of the Italian coast or the western 
coasts of France and Denmark. Tliey are more poetic, more free, 
more joyful, something that appeals more to the average human 
being and which has a greater influence on him than the colder, more 
severe and overwhelming forms of landscape. Those of us who feel 
the necessity of paying homage to this interesting region they not 
only charm with their hidden mysteries, but give us — who are 
imprisoned as it were in the brick and stone of a great city — a greater 
and clearer vision of the great out-of-doors. Few can imagine the 
magnificent outlook over Lake Michigan from the tops or ridges of 
the dunes, especially at sunset, and the wonderful view of Indiana 
and the blue haze of the State of Michigan. 
98 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 99 

From an artistic standpoint the color expressions of spring and 
autunin are not equaled anywhere. Added to this is the movement 
and history of the dunes, dating back into geological ages thousands 
of years ago. 

The dunes represent a book of the great outdoors which man can 
never fully comprehend; but it is not the great dramatic things, 
which appeal perhaps more to the eye than the more intimate and 
hidden treasures, that gives the real charm to this bit of nature's 
landscape. It is among the sand hills that the real mystery of the 
dunes is to be found. In the dune meadows, in the bogs or tamarack 
swamps, or along hidden trails one feels the exquisite beauty of the 
hidden shrines of nature's great work. Carpets of flowers cover the 
hills and valleys of the dunes during spring and early summer — ^in 
fact during the entire season. Here the lupine brings the first joy 
of spring to the visitor, with its beautiful handlike leaves upon which 
the rays of the rising sun turn the dew of early morning, glistening 
in its palm, into millions of diamonds. Later a sea of blue covers 
the forest floor, and in late autumn we have the same expression 
in its beautiful leaves as in spring. Also in late autumn the gentian 
puts its color on the dune meadows, holding out until the winter 
blasts shrivel up the last flower. Along the trail asters stand in a 
blaze of glory as so many candles lighting up the way of the pilgrim 
who ventures into the woods on dark and gloomy autumn days, and 
in the wind rustling through trees that have seen generations pass 
below one fancies he can hear the chanting song of the Red Man, or 
the cradle song of the Indian squaw when listening to the murmur- 
ing waves breaking over the sandy beach of this dune country. 

Man becomes small and insignificant, indeed, in such environment. 
He should be thankful for being able to enjoy and understand, at 
least in a small way, this wonderful beauty that lies all around him, 
and grieve that millions have to live and die without knowing any- 
thing of its wonders. Perhaps he thinks about the millions that are 
growing up and are debarred from the enjoyment of this the greatest 
of all books. He thinks, no doubt, about the necessity of this bal- 
ance of mind, the need of knowing something about mother earth, 
her great beauty, mysterious life, and never-ending change. No one 
has more need of an intimate acquaintance with out-of-door life and 
the always changing charms of nature than those who grind away 
their lives in our mills, our factories, our shops, and our stores. The 
man in the factory turning out the same kind of work day after day 
during his entire lifetime needs something as a balance, something 
that will make his work more endurable, more cheerful, something 
that will broaden his vision and save him or his descendants from 
the destruction sure to follow the endless grind of his daily life. 



100 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

The people of the mills, the shops, and the stores are the backbone 
of the great cities. They are the producers of wealth and the human 
species; and the opportunity for those people to get the full value of 
the out of doors is made almost impossible. The great national res- 
ervations of the West are beyond their reach and the parks of the 
cities, valuable as they are, do not possess the wild beauty of the 
Master's hand nor do they inspire the soul in the salne degree. There 
is no other place in our country where this wild beauty lies so close 
to great industrial communities. The dunes of northern Indiana 
are almost within a stone's throw of perhaps one of the greatest 
industrial communities of the world. It is the only landscape of its 
kind within reach of the millions that need its softening influence for 
the restoration of their souls and the balance of their minds. 

Of all the national parks and monuments donated by Congress to 
the American people, there is none more valuable and none more 
useful to the people of the Middle West than the dune country of 
northern Indiana. It is to-day the Mecca of the artist and the 
scientist. No one knows what the future has in store. Possiblv the 
influence of these wild and romantic dunes may be the source from 
which America's greatest poets and artists get their inspiration. 
Who can tell ? 



Peterson Nursery, 30 North La Salle Street, 

Chicago, III, October 30, 1916. 

Dear Sir: I listened with much interest to-day to the several 
reports in regard to the dunes. Some time ago I wrote a letter to 
Mr. Charles H. Wacker giving some of the reasons for preserving the 
dunes that were not included in any of the lines of talk given to-day. 
If, for any reason, after getting up a report, you want any addi- 
tional facts not given yesterday, it w^ould be desirable to have as 
many of these reasons incorporated in same as possible. 

The topography is of a local character and totally different from 
the surrounding prairies. Their usual contours produce shelter belts 
where a rare flora is spontaneously maintained, and plants like Linnea 
borealis thrive and the sour gum (Nyssa muUiflora) and flowering 
dogwood {Cornus jiorida) and shrubs of great beauty grow nearer 
Chicago than the rigor of our climate otherwise admit of so far north. 

The prickly pear is fast disappearing from our lake shore. In the 
spring the lupines bloom in a riot of profusion. From the landscape 
standpoint they are a wonderful picture of dame nature's varied 
moods. 

To the student of history they present the difhculties which our 
pioneers had to overcome and they remain to show the Indian's 
natural fortifications and ambushes. The surprising fact is to 
account for such wonderful verdure anvd the great trees in some 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 101 

places that can be produced on such poor soil. Some of the typical 

and undisturbed areas should be preserved for future generations. 

Very respectfully, 

Wm. a. Peterson. 



Mr. Stephen T. Mather. 

Dear Sir: Personal experience of 30 years with the dunes of Lake 
Michigan has made them very dear to me. Trailing arbutus, winter- 
green berries, and pine trees are among my earliest and happiest 
recollections. At Ludington, Mich., not far from my summer home, 
I am told that the arbutus is practically exterminated. The rapid 
growth of the summer cottage along the shores of Lake 'Michigan 
leaves little room for doubt that before many generations the arbutus 
and other growths rare in this section of the country will be gone, 
unless protected in a national reservation. 

The general direction of the Alaska-to-Florida route of bird migra- 
tion brings the birds through the region of northern Illinois, along 
the southern shores of Lake Michigan. Their natural refuge in the 
wild region of the dunes of Indiana is threatened by the crowding 
settlements along the lake. This year (1916), in May, exploring 
the dunes at MiUers, I was followed by a ragged boy, during the 
noon recess of school, and learned from his own lips that he had 
killed 16 birds already that spring. I noticed an indigo bunting and 
heard the notes of birds unknown to me; but the memory of that 
small boy, unrestrained by authority, is with me still. His only 
alleged reason for his acts was ''For fun!" 

If I can be of use in influencing sentiment for the preserving of the 
dunes, I shaU be very glad. 
Yours, very truly, 

(Mrs. Chas. L.) Jeannette C. Mix. 

5321 Greenwood Avenue, October 31, 1916. 



H. C. BENKE, traveling PHOTOGRAPHER. 

Elgin, III., November 28, 1916. 
Hon. Franklin K. Lane, 

The Secretary of the Interior, Washington, B. C. 

My Dear Sir: Am glad to read of the interest manifested in 
saving that wonderful bit of nature, the sand dunes of northern 
Indiana, for the future Commonwealth. 

My viewpoint is that of one who is interested in its remarkably 
various and interesting flora, a plant life that is a veritable "Botanist's 
paradise." 

Among my wild-])lant collection of some 1,600 dried and pre- 
served specimens from seven or eight difi'erent States, secured in my 



102 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PAEK. 

spare time during a period of years past, a large number are from 
that region. Indeed, there is, to my knowledge, no other area so 
small from which the collection is so varied, so rare, and so remark- 
able. Many varieties I should hardly have seen but for my pil- 
grimages to that territory. 

The Nation to remote future time were to be congratulated could 
this spot be rescued, for the place is known far and wide to students 
of the beautiful science of the plants. 
I beg to remain, very truly, 

H. C. Benke. 



December 8, 1916. 
Hon. Stephen Mather, 

Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior. 

Sir: If it is finally decided to set aside the dune region of Indiana 
as a national park, I hope that when the time comes to consider 
details, feeding and nesting grounds for waterfowl will not be over- 
looked. 

While Lake Michigan offers a resting place during migration, and 
a feeding place for the fish eaters, about the only nesting and feeding 
grounds left for marsh birds and the nonfish-eating waterfowl are 
part of the Grand Calumet River about Millers, and Long Lake, 
lying north of the tracks of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
Railroad, between MiUers and Dune Park. Neither offers a large 
area, but each supports a ''gun club." With proper protection I 
believe they would develop into waterfowl preserves, as out of the 
shooting season they are frequented by duck, coot, and grebes (pied- 
bill), the two latter nesting there. 

Respectfully, 

Alfred Lewy, 

Member Audubon Society; Wilson Ornithological Society; 

Chicago Ornithological Cluh. 



West Chicago Park Commissioners' 

Office in Union Park, • 

Chicago, October 27, 1916. 
Hon. Stephen T. Mather, 

Care Judge Kohlsaat, 653 Federal Building, Chicago, III. 

My Dear Mr. Mather: Being recently connected with the West 
Chicago Park Commissioners for 7 years and a resident of Chicago 
for over 30 5^ears, I want to add my voice to urge the establishment of 
dune national park, to be located along the southern shore of Lake 
Michigan, between Gary and Michigan City. 

I have tramped over this region for the past five years, and can not 
speak too highly of its value to the Nation as a national park. 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 103 

My travels have brought me in contact with the national parks 
west and east, and I know the great necessity of a national park in 
the vicinity of Chicago. My work has familiarized me with the need 
of wholesome recreation and a place to go for those who love nature. 
There are millions of people living within a day's ride of the dunes, 
and the estabhshment of a national park would be a lasting benejfit 
to the Nation. 

So, may I urge, as a former citizen of Chicago, as a former member 
of parks and playground committee of the City Club of Chicago, as a 
former member of the Prairie Club of Chicago, as a member of the 
Playground and Recreation Association of America, and as one who 
is vitally interested in the national parks, that this district be obtained 
as soon as possible by the United States Government and set aside 
for the free use of the people for ever more. 

With best wishes for the success of this project, I am, 

Sincerely yours, 

Sidney A. Teller, 

Former Director of Stanford Parle, Chicago, HI. 

Present location 1835 Center Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa; Director, 

Irene Kaufmann Settlement. 



Chicago Savings Bank Building, 

State and Madison Streets, 

Chicago, October 28, 191G. 
Dear Sir: Just a word from a former clinician in the State Uni- 
versity in favor of this movement to create a national dunes park. I 
am extremely interested in this movement. I have been for 12 or 15 
years a frequent visitor to this region. I have made it a habit to take 
my extra flower seeds and sow them where it seemed favorable, and 
plant my extra tulip bulbs to develop in this beautiful region. 

It would be a calamity to have this occupied for commercial pur- 
poses, and no finer site could be asked for a national park, being so 
close to great centers of population. 

My influence can be counted upon in any way within my power. 
With best'wishes, I remain, 
Very truly, yours, 

R. H. Brown. 



Excerpt from letter from J, G. Morgan, of Chesterton, Ind., dated 

November 22. 

* * * I would suggest establishing the west line of the proposed 
park on the. east line of Sec. 20, T. 37 N., R. 6 W., as this would not 
interfere with the Knickerbocker sand industry, then east to Sec. 8, 
T. 37 N., R. 5 W., in Westchester Township, and east of this I leave 
to the suggestion of the people of Pine Township and Michigan City. 



104 PROPOSED SAND DUl^TES NATIONAL PARK. 

Another suggestion that might be of interest to the Government: 
At the time of the Civil War the Government put up two observatories 
about 150 feet high to watch the lake, so that the sympathizers of the 
Southern Confederacy might be kept from getting in and destroying 
the cities and shipping on Lake Michigan, and if the Government 
should in time to come deem it advisable to erect an observatory 
near Lake Michigan for the protection of lives and commerce on the 
lake, I think the top of Mount Tom would be the most desirable 
location. * * * 



525 Van Buren Street, 

November 4, 1916. 
Hon. Stephen T. Mather, 

Assistant to the Secretary of tTie Interior, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: As an expression of the interest of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution in Indiana in the proposed dunes park 
along the southern shore of Lake Michigan, I herewith inclose a copy 
of a resolution passed by the Indiana conference of that society, 
recently held at Richmond, Ind.; also a copy of a resolution passed 
by the Pottawatomie Chapter, D. A. R., of Gary, Ind. We desire 
to have these filed, along with other papers pertaining to the afore- 
said proposed park project. 
Very respectfully, 

(Mrs. John O.) Nellie B. Bowers, 
Regent Pottawatomie Chapter, D. A. R. 



Resolution favoring the establishment of a National Dune Park in Indiana. 

[Adopted by the Indiana Conference of Daughters of the American Hevolution at llichmond, Ind., October 

26, 1916, Mrs. Frederick S. Bates, State Secretary.] 

Whereas there is located on the southerly shore of Lake Michigan a region of vast 
sand ridges, which stand unrivaled among the dune formations of our native land, 
which are of inestimable value to the artist, the geologist, and the botanist, and which 
are so immediately accessible to such a vast mass of the American people that said 
area might become one of the most inspiring playgrounds and the best equipped 
nature schools in the world ; and 

Whereas this region is being rapidly desecrated by man, it is deemed of vital im- 
portance that immediate action be taken to preserve said territory to future genera- 
tions in all its natural beauty and interest; and 

Whereas it is believed that such results can be best obtained by the establishment 
of a national park, including said area; and 

Whereas a movement has been started to accomplish said object, being now repre- 
sented by the national dunes park association, with which movement the Daughters 
of the American Revolution, State of Indiana, are in complete sympathy and accord! 
Now, therefore, 

Be it resolved, That the Indiana conference. Daughters of the American Revolution, 
does hereby pledge itself to render all possible assistance to the successful completion 
of the establishment of said dune park. 



PEOPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 105 

Be it further resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to the National Dunes 
Park Association, A. L. Knotts, Gary, Ind., President. 

Secretary of Interior, Washington, D. C. 

Department of Interior, at its public hearing to be held October 30, 1916, at the 
Federal Building, Chicago, on the question of the establishment of said park, Senator 
Thomas H. Taggart and all other Indiana Congressmen. 



Whereas the original forests of our State, with their flora and fauna, have almost 
wholly disappeared, and those that yet remain are threatened with speedy destruc- 
tion; and 

Whereas it is highly desirable for both the present and the coming generations that 
sections of the country be preserved, as far as possible, in their primitive conditions; 
and 

Whereas the governor of this State has appointed a committee known as the State 
park memorial committee to aid in the securing of funds for the purchase of tracts of 
land to be used as public natural parks; and 

Whereas there is a widespread interest in the preservations of some of the typical 
sections of the dune country lying along the southeastern shore of Lake Michigan, 
within the State of Indiana, in which interest this chapter shares; Therefore 

Be it resolved, That the Pottawatomie Chapter, D. A. R., highly favor the purchase 
of some appropriate section of such dune district for a public natural park and the 
preservation of its remarkable flora and fauna, and that this chapter take suitable 
action for the promotion of such purchase ; 

And be it further resolved, That a copy of this resolution be sent to the State park 
memorial committee, together with the assurance of our interest and desire to cooper- 
ate with, them in this said undertaking. 

Gary, Ind., November 2, 1916. 
The foi'egoing is a true copy of a resolution duly passed by the 
Pottawatomie Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, at Gary, Ind., on the 13th day of May, 1916, as the same appears 
upon the minutes of said chapter. 

Mrs. Jno. Phillips Fox, 
Secretary Pottawatomie CJiaj^ter, D. A. R. 

Nellie B. Bowers, 

Regent. 



Chicago Woman's Club, 

Fine Arts Building, 

410 South Michigan Avenue, November 27, 1916. 
Hon. Franklin K. Lane, 

Secretary of the Interior, Washington, B.C. 
Dear Sir : At a meeting of the Chicago Woman's Club on Wednes- 
day, November 22, a motion was passed as follows: 

Resolved, That the Chicago Woman's Club send to the Secretary of the Interior an 
urgent plea for the securing by the Nation as a national park that portion of the counties 
of Lake, La Porte, and Porter, in the State of Indiana, bordering upon Lake Michigan 
and commonly known as the sand dunes. 

In obedience to this motion, I have the honor of bringing this 
matter to your attention, on the part of the Chicago Woman's Club 



106 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

and of expressing the hope that this measure, which would directly 
benefit the citizens of Chicago, may receive your favorable consid- 
eration. 

I am, with all respect. 
Very truly, yours, 

Alice E. Moran, 
Corresponding Secretary, 



Chicago Woman's Aid, 
4622 Grand Boulevard, 

Chicago, October 24, 1916. 
The honorable Secretary of the Interior, 

Washington, Z>. C. 
- Dear Sir: In the name of the Chicago Woman's Aid, a club with 
a membership of over 1,200, we beg to request you to favor and use 
your influence to make the dunes of Indiana a part of the national 
park reservation and have the same come under the administration of 
the Department of the Interior. 
Very sincerely, 

(Mrs. Edward) Clara Asher Gudeman, 

Secretary. 



Chicago South Side Club, 

5111 Kimball Avenue, 
Chicago, November 18, 1916. 
Hon. Franklin K. Lane, 

Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Mr. Lane : The board of directors of the Chicago South 
Side Club at a recent meeting adopted a resolution instructing its 
secretary to write you a letter expressing its appreciation of your 
efforts toward making a national park of ''the dunes." It is the 
hope of our club as an organization and of its members as indi- 
viduals that your report to Congress may favor an immediate appro- 
priation for the purpose of purchasing ''the dunes," and that such 
report may receive favorable action to the end that this extremely 
interesting spot may be permanently purchased for the use of all the 
people while there is still an opportunity of securing it at a moderate 
cost. 

Cordially, yours, 

Nettie B. Hislop, 
Corresponding Secretary Chicago South Side Club. 



proposed sand dunes national park. 107 

The Eleanor Association, 
16 North Wabash Avenue, 

November 20, 1916. 
Mr. Stephen T. Mather, 

Assistant Secretary, Department of the Interior, 

Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Mr. Mather : The inclosed resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted by the Central Eleanor Club, Chicago, November 
10, 1916. 

I am sending, under separate cover, a Year Book of the club 
that you may have some knowledge of the membership it covers. 
Inclosed in this letter is a booklet giving something of the work of 
the entire Eleanor Association under which the Central Eleanor 
Club is organized. 

Very sincerely, 

Grace A. Coulter, 

General Secretary. 



Whereas there is at present no national park readily accessible to the inhabitants of 
the Mddle West; and 

Whereas in no other region in the world can one find dunes possessing the rare 
beauties of those of northern Indiana; and 

Whereas the plan to establish a national park in the sand dunes of northern Indiana 
is being given serious consideration by the Department of the Interior of the United 
States; and 

Whereas it is believed that the successful culmination of the project depends to a 
very large extent upon the cooperation of everyone who can exert some influence to 
sway public opinion in this direction. 

Be it resolved, That the Central Eleanor Club of Chicago place itself on record as 
favorable to the plan to preserve for all time as a national park, the sand dunes located 
along the southern shore of Lake Michigan in Lake and Porter Counties, Ind. 

And he it further resolved, That a copy of this resolution be forwarded to Mr. Stephen 
T. Mather, assistant secretary in charge of national parks for the Department of the 
Interior of the United States. 



Lombard Woman's Club, 
Lombard, III., November I4, 1916. 
Franklin K. Lane, 

Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Sir: The Lombard Woman's Club wishes to express 
their approval, as a body, to the resolution presented before Congress 
by Senator Thomas Taggart, of Indiana, to the effect that 20 miles 
(about) of unspoiled dune coimtry between Chesterton and Michigan 
City be set aside as a national park. 

The '^ saving other dunes" means much to us in every way, from a 
geologic, botanic, and artistic standpoint, and we want them saved. 

(Mrs. C. W.) EsTELLE F. Green, 

Corresponding Secretary. 



108 proposed sand dunes national park. 

Nature Study Class, Lombard Woman's Club, 

Lomhard, III., Novemher 15, 1916. 
Secretary Franklin K. Lane, 

Wasliington, D. C. 
Dear Sir : We wish to express our approval of Senator Taggart's 
resolution that part of the dune country be reserved as a national 
park, thereby protecting its natural botanic, geologic, and artistic 
beauty, for which the dunes are unrivaled in any other country. 
Hoping for your cooperation in this matter, we remain, 
Yours, sincerely, 

Mrs. M. C. Murphy, 

Secretary. 

RosELAND Woman's Club, 

10859 State Street, 
Chicago, III., Novemher H, 1916. 
Dear Sir: Concerning the dunes located between Michigan City 
and Chesterton, Ind. : 

The Roseland Woman's Club desires to voice strongly its senti- 
ment (along with various other clubs) in favor of conserving this 
portion of the dunes for the purpose of making same a national park. 
To allow these dunes to become the property of private interests, 
thus destroying their natural and rare beauty, would be a national 
shame. 

Respectfully, 

Mrs. Elizabeth A. Was, 

Corresponding Secretary. 

Secretary of the Interior Lane, 

WasJiington, D. C. 



November 18, 1916. 
Department of Interior. 

Dear Sirs: At the last meeting of the Duo Decimo Club of Fott 
Wayne it was voted to go on record as favoring the reservation of 
the Gary sand dunes for park purposes and to inform your depart- 
ment of the same. 

Yours, truly, 

Mrs. Madge Millikin, 

Secretary. 

The Short Hills Garden Club, 

Short Hills, N.- J., Novemher 24, 1916. 
Hon. Franklin K. Lane. 

Dear Sir: I am instructed by the Short HiUs Garden Club to 
write you, urging most vigorously that the Indiana dunes on Lake 
Michigan be used for the benefit of the public as a national park. 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 109 

Their beauty and accessibility would be a blessing to the great 
masses who can never go so far as our western parks. Also as a 
haven of refuge for our native birds, it would fill a much needed want. 
Very truly, yours, 

H. M. Stout. 

Mrs. Charles H. Stout, 

Secretary. 

[Telegram.] 

Long Branch, N. J., December 1, 1916. 
Hon. Franklin K. Lane, 

Secretary Interior Department, Washington, D. C: 
Earnestly hope you can secure dunes of Indiana as a national park. 

Mrs. J. W. Cunningham, 
President of the Rumson Garden Cluh, New Jersey. 



[Resolution adopted Oct. 25, 1916, by the Lake County Trades and Labor Council.] 

Lake County Trades and Labor Council, 

Hammond, Ind., October 27, 1916. 
Hon. S. T. Mather, 

Federal Building, Chieago, III. 

Dear Sir: At a regular meeting of the Lake County Trades and 

Labor Council, held October 11, 1916, the matter of preserving the 

sand dunes in Lake and Porter Counties for a national park was 

openly discussed. After much favorable comment the chairman 

appointed a committee to draft a resolution favoring the project. 

The undersigned committee beg to present the following resolutions : 

Whereas the entire United States is seemingly interested in our sand dunes to be 
preserved in their natural state, we, as a committee, the Lake County Trades and 
Labor Council at Hammond, Ind., do hereby 

Resolve, That we indorse the resolution introduced in the United States Senate by 
the Hon. Thomas Taggart, of Indiana, for the conservation of the sand dunes; and 
further 

Resolve, That we send a copy of these resolutions to the Hon. Thom.as Taggart, 
Hon. John W. Kern, and Hon. A. F. Knotts. president of the Sand Dunes Association. 

Respect fuDy submitted. 

Thomas Harle, 
Joseph P. Kasper, 
R. Elster, 

Committee. 



Resolution favoring the establishment of a National Dune Park in Indiana. 

Whereas there is located on the soutlierly shore of Lake Michigan a region of vast 
sand ridges, which stand unrivaled among the dune formations of our native land, 
which are of inestimable value to the artist, the geologist, and the botanist, and which 



110 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

are so immediately accessible to such a vast mass of American people that said area 
might become one of the most inspiring playgrounds and the best-equipped nature 
schools in the wo»rld; and 

Whereas this region is being so rapidly desecrated by man, it is deemed of vital im- 
portance that immediate action be taken to preserve said territory to future genera- 
tions in all its natural beauty and interest; and 

Whereas it is believed that such results can be best obtained by the establishment 
of a national park including said area; and 

Whereas a movement has been started to accomplish said object, being now repre- 
sented by the National Dunes Park Association, with which movement the Gary 
Departmental Club is in complete sympathy and accord: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the Gary Departmental Club, of Gary, Ind., does hereby pledge 
itself to render all possible assistance to the successful completion of the establish- 
ment of said dune park. 

Be it further resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to the National Dunes 
Park Association (A. F. Knotts, Garj'-, Ind., president). Secretary of the Interior, 
Department of Interior at its public hearing to be held October 30, 1916, at the Fed- 
eral Building, Chicago, on the question of the establishment of said park, Senator 
Thomas H. Taggart, and all other Indiana Congressmen. 



National Dunes Park Association. 
Articles op Association, 
article i. — name. 
The name of this association shall be the National Dunes Park Association. 

ART. II. — OBJECT. 

The object of this association shall be to secure, establish, improve, and perpetuate 
a public natural park or parks along the southerly shore of Lake Michigan, in the 
State of Indiana. 

ART. III. — DIRECTORS. 

The number of directors of this association shall be fifteen (15). The names of the 
directors selected for the management of its business 'and prudential concerns for the 
first year of its existence are as follows: Armanis F. Knotts, of Gary, Ind.; Thomas 
W. Allinson, of Chicago, 111.; Thomas H. Cannon, of Gary, Ind.; Henry C. Cowles, of 
Chicago, 111.; Catherine A. Mitchell, of Riverside, 111.; Jens Jensen, of Chicago, 111.; 
Bess M. Sheehan, of Gary, Ind.; Everett L. Millars, of Highland Park, 111.; Lee F. 
Bennett, of Valparaiso, Ind.; Charles Stoltz, of South Bend, Ind.; Dwight W. Roper, 
of Chicago, 111.; Edward M. Winston, of Chicago, 111.; John O. Bowers, of Gary, Ind.; 
Zonia Baber, of Chicago, 111.; and George M. Pinneo, of Gary, Ind. 

The board of directors of this association shall be elected annually at the annual 
meeting of the members of the association. 

All voting shall be in person, voting by proxy being prohibited: Provided, That at 
any election by members voting by mail shall be permitted. 

ART. IV. — PLACE OF BUSINESS. 

The home office and principal place of business of this association shall be at the 
city of Gary, State of Indiana. 

ART. V. — SEAL. 

The seal of this corporation shall consist of a circular disk upon which shall be 
inscribed between concentric circles the name of this association, and within the 
inner of which circles shall be ens^raved a picture of a sand dune adjacent to a body 
vof water with the word " seal " thereunder. 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. Ill 

ART. VI, — NAMES, SIGNATURES, AND RESIDENCES. 

The names, signatures, and residences of the incorporators of this association, said 
incorporators being citizens of the United States, are as follows: 

Names. Residences. 



AN ACT To establish a National Park Service, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assen^hled, That there is hereby created 
in the Department of the Interior a service to be called the National 
Park Service, which shall be under the charge of a director, who shall 
be appointed by the Secretary and who shall receive a salary of $4,500 
per annum. There shall also be appointed by the Secretary the fol- 
lowing assistants and other employees at the salaries designated: One 
assistant director, at $2,500 per annum; one chief clerk, at $2,000 per 
annum; one draftsman, at $1,800 per annum; one messenger, at $600 
per annum; and, in addition thereto, such other employees as the 
Secretary of the Interior shall deem necessary: Provided, That not 
more than $8,100 annually shall be expended for salaries of experts, 
assistants, and employees within the District of Columbia not herein 
specifically enumerated unless previously authorized by law. The 
service thus established shall promote and regulate the use of the 
Federal areas known as national parks, monuments, and reservations 
hereinafter specified by such means and measures as conform to the 
fundamental purpose of the said parks, monuments, and reservations, 
which purpose is to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic 
objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of 
the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unim- 
paired for the enjoyment of future generations. 

Sec. 2. That the director shall, under the direction of the Secretary 
of the Interior, have the supervision, management, and control of the 
several national parks and national monuments which are now under 
the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior, and of the Hot 
Springs Ileservation in the State of Arkansas, and of such other 
national parks and reservations of like character as may be hereafter 
created by Congress: Provided, That in the supervision, management, 
and control of national monuments contiguous to national forests the 
Secretary of Agriculture may cooperate with said National Park 
Service to such extent as may be requested by the Secretary of the 
Interior. 

Sec. 3. That the Secretary of the Interior shall make and publish 
such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or proper for 
the use and management of the parks, monuments, and reservations 
under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, and any viola- 
tions of any of tlie rules and regulations authorized by this act shaU 
be punished as provided for in section fifty of the act entitled ''An 



112 PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 

act to codify and amend the penal laws of the United States," ap- 
proved March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, as amended by 
section six of the act of June twenty-fifth, nineteen hundred and ten 
(Thirty-sixth United States Statutes at Large, page eight hundred and 
fifty-seven). He may also, upon terms and conditions to be fixed 
by him, sell or dispose of timber in those cases where in his judgment 
the cutting of such timber is required in order to control the attacks 
of insects or diseases or otherwise conserve the scenery or the natural 
or historic objects in any such park, monument, or reservation. He 
may also provide in his discretion for the destruction of such animal 
and of such plant life as may be detrimental to the use of any of said 
parks, monuments, or reservations. He may also grant privileges, 
leases, and permits for the use of land for the accommodation of 
visitors in the various parks, monuments, or other reservations herein 
provided for, but for periods not exceeding twenty years; and no 
natural curiosities, wonders, or objects of interest shall be leased, 
rented, or granted to anyone on such terms as to interfere with free 
access to them by the public: Provided, however, Tliat the Secretary 
of the Interior may, under such rules and regulations and on such 
terms as he may prescribe, grant the privilege to graze live stock within 
any national park, monument, or reservation herein referred to when 
in his judgment such use is not detrimental to the primary purpose 
for which such park, monument, or reservation was created, except 
that this provision shall not apply to the Yellowstone National Park. 
Sec. 4. Tiiat nothing in this act contained shall affect or modify 
the provisions of the act approved February fifteenth, nineteen 
hundred and one, entitled ^^An act relating to rights of way through 
certain parks, reservations, and other public lands." 

Approved, August 25, 1916. (39 Stat., 535.) 

AN ACT For the preservation of American antiquities. 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled. That -any person 
who shall appropriate, excavate, injure, or destroy any historic or 
prehistoric ruin or monument, or any object of antiquity, situated on 
lands owned or controlled by the Government of the United States, 
without the permission of the Secretary of the Department of the 
Government having jurisdiction over the lands on which said antiqui- 
ties are situated, shall, upon conviction, be fined in a sum of not more 
than five hundred dollars or be imprisoned for a period of not more 
than ninety days, or shall suffer both fine and imprisonment, in the 
discretion of the court. 

Sec. 2. That the President of the United States is liereby author- 
ized, in his discretion, to declare by public proclamation historic land- 
marks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic 
or scientific interest that are situated upon the lands owned or con- 
trolled by the Government of the United States to be national mcuiu- 
ments, and may reserve as a part thereof parcels of land, the liinits of 
which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible 
with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected: 
Provided, That when such objects are situated upon a tract covered 
by a bona fide unperfected claim or held in ]n'ivate ownership, the 
tracts, or so much thereof as may be necessary for the proper care and 
management of the object, may bo relinquished to the Government, 



PROPOSED SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK. 113 

and the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized to accept the 
rehnquishment of such tracts in behalf of the Government of the 
United States. 

Sec. 3. That permits for the examination of ruins, the excavation 
of archaeological sites, and the gathering of objects of antiquity upon 
the lands under their respective jurisdictions may be granted by the 
Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, and War, to institutions 
which they may deem properly qualified to conduct such examina- 
tion, excavation, or gathering, subject to such rules and regulations 
as they may prescribe: Provided, That the examinations, excavations, 
and gatherings are undertaken for the benefit of reputable museums, 
universities, coUeges, or other recognized scientific or educational 
institutions, with a view to increasing the knowledge of such objects, 
and that the gatherings shall be made for permanent preservation in 
public museums. 

Sec 4. That the Secretaries of the departments aforesaid shall 
make and publish from time to time uniform rules and regulations 
for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this act. 

Approved, June 8, 1906. (34 Stats., 225.) 

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